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Implicit Context-aware Learning and Discovery for Streaming Data Analytics

arXiv.org Machine Learning

--The performance of machine learning model can be further improved if contextual cues are provided as input along with base features that are directly related to an inference task. In offline learning, one can inspect historical training data to identify contextual clusters either through feature clustering, or handcrafting additional features to describe a context. While offline training enjoys the privilege of learning reliable models based on already-defined contextual features, online training for streaming data may be more challenging-- the data is streamed through time, and the underlying context during a data generation process may change. Furthermore, the problem is exacerbated when the number of possible context is not known. In this study, we propose an online-learning algorithm involving the use of a neural network-based autoencoder to identify contextual changes during training, then compares the currently-inferred context to a knowledge base of learned contexts as training advances. Results show that classifier-training benefits from the automatically discovered contexts which demonstrates quicker learning convergence during contextual changes compared to current methods. Contextual cues can greatly benefit learning of predictive tasks in a machine learning model. A single datapoint may be meaningless.


Context-Aware Recommender Systems

AI Magazine

This article explores how contextual information can be used to create intelligent and useful recommender systems. It provides an overview of the multifaceted notion of context, discusses several approaches for incorporating contextual information in the recommendation process, and illustrates the usage of such approaches in several application areas where different types of contexts are exploited. The article concludes by discussing the challenges and future research directions for context-aware recommender systems. As additional observations are made about users' preferences, the user models are extended, and the full collection of user preferences is used to generate recommendations or make predictions. This approach, therefore, ignores the notion of "situated actions" (Suchman 1987), the fact that users interact with the system within a particular "context" and that preferences for items within one context may be different from those in another context.


Robust Contextual Outlier Detection: Where Context Meets Sparsity

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Outlier detection is a fundamental data science task with applications ranging from data cleaning to network security. Given the fundamental nature of the task, this has been the subject of much research. Recently, a new class of outlier detection algorithms has emerged, called {\it contextual outlier detection}, and has shown improved performance when studying anomalous behavior in a specific context. However, as we point out in this article, such approaches have limited applicability in situations where the context is sparse (i.e. lacking a suitable frame of reference). Moreover, approaches developed to date do not scale to large datasets. To address these problems, here we propose a novel and robust approach alternative to the state-of-the-art called RObust Contextual Outlier Detection (ROCOD). We utilize a local and global behavioral model based on the relevant contexts, which is then integrated in a natural and robust fashion. We also present several optimizations to improve the scalability of the approach. We run ROCOD on both synthetic and real-world datasets and demonstrate that it outperforms other competitive baselines on the axes of efficacy and efficiency (40X speedup compared to modern contextual outlier detection methods). We also drill down and perform a fine-grained analysis to shed light on the rationale for the performance gains of ROCOD and reveal its effectiveness when handling objects with sparse contexts.


Augmenting Recurrent Neural Networks with High-Order User-Contextual Preference for Session-Based Recommendation

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The recent adoption of recurrent neural networks (RNNs) for session modeling has yielded substantial performance gains compared to previous approaches. In terms of context-aware session modeling, however, the existing RNN-based models are limited in that they are not designed to explicitly model rich static user-side contexts (e.g., age, gender, location). Therefore, in this paper, we explore the utility of explicit user-side context modeling for RNN session models. Specifically, we propose an augmented RNN (ARNN) model that extracts high-order user-contextual preference using the product-based neural network (PNN) in order to augment any existing RNN session model. Evaluation results show that our proposed model outperforms the baseline RNN session model by a large margin when rich user-side contexts are available.


Contextual Compositionality Detection with External Knowledge Bases andWord Embeddings

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

When the meaning of a phrase cannot be inferred from the individual meanings of its words (e.g., hot dog), that phrase is said to be non-compositional. Automatic compositionality detection in multi-word phrases is critical in any application of semantic processing, such as search engines; failing to detect non-compositional phrases can hurt system effectiveness notably. Existing research treats phrases as either compositional or non-compositional in a deterministic manner. In this paper, we operationalize the viewpoint that compositionality is contextual rather than deterministic, i.e., that whether a phrase is compositional or non-compositional depends on its context. For example, the phrase `green card' is compositional when referring to a green colored card, whereas it is non-compositional when meaning permanent residence authorization. We address the challenge of detecting this type of contextual compositionality as follows: given a multi-word phrase, we enrich the word embedding representing its semantics with evidence about its global context (terms it often collocates with) as well as its local context (narratives where that phrase is used, which we call usage scenarios). We further extend this representation with information extracted from external knowledge bases. The resulting representation incorporates both localized context and more general usage of the phrase and allows to detect its compositionality in a non-deterministic and contextual way. Empirical evaluation of our model on a dataset of phrase compositionality, manually collected by crowdsourcing contextual compositionality assessments, shows that our model outperforms state-of-the-art baselines notably on detecting phrase compositionality.