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[Editors' Choice] Polarity reversal during tissue remodeling

Science

The epithelial-mesenchymal transition occurs when epithelial cells lose apicobasal polarity and cell-cell contacts and migrate into surrounding tissues as mesenchymal cells. Migration is crucial for gastrulation, neural tube formation, and cancer metastasis. However, the mechanisms underlying loss of polarity and cell movement are poorly understood. The change in cell organization results in the transition from apicobasal polarity to front-rear polarity that precedes cell migration. Micropatterned cell culture showed that the mechanism is cell-intrinsic and governed by microtubule reorganization but is not influenced by neighboring cells.


Weakly Supervised Induction of Affective Events by Optimizing Semantic Consistency

AAAI Conferences

To understand narrative text, we must comprehend how people are affected by the events that they experience. For example, readers understand that graduating from college is a positive event (achievement) but being fired from one's job is a negative event (problem). NLP researchers have developed effective tools for recognizing explicit sentiments, but affective events are more difficult to recognize because the polarity is often implicit and can depend on both a predicate and its arguments. Our research investigates the prevalence of affective events in a personal story corpus, and introduces a weakly supervised method for large scale induction of affective events. We present an iterative learning framework that constructs a graph with nodes representing events and initializes their affective polarities with sentiment analysis tools as weak supervision. The events are then linked based on three types of semantic relations: (1) semantic similarity, (2) semantic opposition, and (3) shared components. The learning algorithm iteratively refines the polarity values by optimizing semantic consistency across all events in the graph. Our model learns over 100,000 affective events and identifies their polarities more accurately than other methods.


Wiegand

AAAI Conferences

Though polarity classification has been extensively explored at document level, there has been little work investigating feature design at sentence level. Due to the small number of words within a sentence, polarity classification at sentence level differs substantially from document-level classification in that resulting bag-of-words feature vectors tend to be very sparse resulting in a lower classification accuracy. In this paper, we show that performance can be improved by adding features specifically designed for sentence-level polarity classification. We consider both explicit polarity information and various linguistic features. A great proportion of the improvement that can be obtained by using polarity information can also be achieved by using a set of simple domain-independent linguistic features.


Yoshida

AAAI Conferences

Sentiment analysis is the task of determining the attitude (positive or negative) of documents. While the polarity of words in the documents is informative for this task, polarity of some words cannot be determined without domain knowledge. Detecting word polarity thus poses a challenge for multiple-domain sentiment analysis. Previous approaches tackle this problem with transfer learning techniques, but they cannot handle multiple source domains and multiple target domains. This paper proposes a novel Bayesian probabilistic model to handle multiple source and multiple target domains.


Bosco

AAAI Conferences

This paper focusses on the main issues related to the development of a corpus for opinion and sentiment analysis, with a special attention to irony, and presents as a case study Senti-TUT, a project for Italian aimed at investigating sentiment and irony in social media. We present the Senti-TUT corpus, a collection of texts from Twitter annotated with sentiment polarity. We describe the dataset, the annotation, the methodologies applied and our investigations on two important features of irony: polarity reversing and emotion expressions.