We present probabilistic logic programming under inheritance with overriding. This approach is based on new notions of entailment for reasoning with conditional constraints, which are obtained from the classical notion of logical entailment by adding the principle of inheritance with overriding. This is done by using recent approaches to probabilistic default reasoning with conditional constraints. We analyze the semantic properties of the new entailment relations. We also present algorithms for probabilistic logic programming under inheritance with overriding, and program transformations for an increased efficiency.

Goldszmidt, Moises, Pearl, Judea

We propose a norm of consistency for a mixed set of defeasible and strict sentences, based on a probabilistic semantics. This norm establishes a clear distinction between knowledge bases depicting exceptions and those containing outright contradictions. We then define a notion of entailment based also on probabilistic considerations and provide a characterization of the relation between consistency and entailment. We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for consistency, and provide a simple decision procedure for testing consistency and deciding whether a sentence is entailed by a database. Finally, it is shown that if al1 sentences are Horn clauses, consistency and entailment can be tested in polynomial time.

Potyka, Nico (FernUniversität Hagen) | Thimm, Matthias (Institute for Web Science and Technologies (WeST))

The classical probabilistic entailment problem is to determine upper and lower bounds on the probability of formulas, given a consistent set of probabilistic assertions. We generalize this problem by omitting the consistency assumption and, thus, provide a general framework for probabilistic reasoning under inconsistency. To do so, we utilize inconsistency measures to determine probability functions that are closest to satisfying the knowledge base. We illustrate our approach on several examples and show that it has both nice formal and computational properties.

We present an approach to variable-strength conditional preferences for matchmaking and ranking objects in description logics. In detail, we introduce conditional preference bases, which consist of a description logic knowledge base and a finite set of variable-strength conditional preferences, and which are associated with a formal semantics based on ranking functions.

Gilio, Angelo, Sanfilippo, Giuseppe

We make a probabilistic analysis related to some inference rules which play an important role in nonmonotonic reasoning. In a coherence-based setting, we study the extensions of a probability assessment defined on $n$ conditional events to their quasi conjunction, and by exploiting duality, to their quasi disjunction. The lower and upper bounds coincide with some well known t-norms and t-conorms: minimum, product, Lukasiewicz, and Hamacher t-norms and their dual t-conorms. On this basis we obtain Quasi And and Quasi Or rules. These are rules for which any finite family of conditional events p-entails the associated quasi conjunction and quasi disjunction. We examine some cases of logical dependencies, and we study the relations among coherence, inclusion for conditional events, and p-entailment. We also consider the Or rule, where quasi conjunction and quasi disjunction of premises coincide with the conclusion. We analyze further aspects of quasi conjunction and quasi disjunction, by computing probabilistic bounds on premises from bounds on conclusions. Finally, we consider biconditional events, and we introduce the notion of an $n$-conditional event. Then we give a probabilistic interpretation for a generalized Loop rule. In an appendix we provide explicit expressions for the Hamacher t-norm and t-conorm in the unitary hypercube.