Compositional semantic aims at constructing the meaning of phrases or sentences according to the compositionality of word meanings. In this paper, we propose to synchronously learn the representations of individual words and extracted high-frequency phrases. Representations of extracted phrases are considered as gold standard for constructing more general operations to compose the representation of unseen phrases. We propose a grammatical type specific model that improves the composition flexibility by adopting vector-tensor-vector operations. Our model embodies the compositional characteristics of traditional additive and multiplicative model. Empirical result shows that our model outperforms state-of-the-art composition methods in the task of computing phrase similarities.
Recursive neural models have achieved promising results in many natural language processing tasks. The main difference among these models lies in the composition function, i.e., how to obtain the vector representation for a phrase or sentence using the representations of words it contains. This paper introduces a novel Adaptive Multi-Compositionality (AdaMC) layer to recursive neural models. The basic idea is to use more than one composition functions and adaptively select them depending on the input vectors. We present a general framework to model each semantic composition as a distribution over these composition functions. The composition functions and parameters used for adaptive selection are learned jointly from data. We integrate AdaMC into existing recursive neural models and conduct extensive experiments on the Stanford Sentiment Treebank. The results illustrate that AdaMC significantly outperforms state-of-the-art sentiment classification methods. It helps push the best accuracy of sentence-level negative/positive classification from 85.4% up to 88.5%.
We present the multiplicative recurrent neural network as a general model for compositional meaning in language, and evaluate it on the task of fine-grained sentiment analysis. We establish a connection to the previously investigated matrix-space models for compositionality, and show they are special cases of the multiplicative recurrent net. Our experiments show that these models perform comparably or better than Elman-type additive recurrent neural networks and outperform matrix-space models on a standard fine-grained sentiment analysis corpus. Furthermore, they yield comparable results to structural deep models on the recently published Stanford Sentiment Treebank without the need for generating parse trees.
Neural network methods have achieved great success in reviews sentiment classification. Recently, some works achieved improvement by incorporating user and product information to generate a review representation. However, in reviews, we observe that some words or sentences show strong user's preference, and some others tend to indicate product's characteristic. The two kinds of information play different roles in determining the sentiment label of a review. Therefore, it is not reasonable to encode user and product information together into one representation. In this paper, we propose a novel framework to encode user and product information. Firstly, we apply two individual hierarchical neural networks to generate two representations, with user attention or with product attention. Then, we design a combined strategy to make full use of the two representations for training and final prediction. The experimental results show that our model obviously outperforms other state-of-the-art methods on IMDB and Yelp datasets. Through the visualization of attention over words related to user or product, we validate our observation mentioned above.
Fu, Peng (Institute of Information Engineering, Chinese Academic of Sciences) | Lin, Zheng (Institute of Information Engineering, Chinese Academic of Sciences) | Yuan, Fengcheng (Institute of Information Engineering, Chinese Academic of Sciences) | Wang, Weiping (Institute of Information Engineering, Chinese Academic of Sciences) | Meng, Dan (Institute of Information Engineering, Chinese Academic of Sciences)
Context-based word embedding learning approaches can model rich semantic and syntactic information. However, it is problematic for sentiment analysis because the words with similar contexts but opposite sentiment polarities, such as good and bad, are mapped into close word vectors in the embedding space. Recently, some sentiment embedding learning methods have been proposed, but most of them are designed to work well on sentence-level texts. Directly applying those models to document-level texts often leads to unsatisfied results. To address this issue, we present a sentiment-specific word embedding learning architecture that utilizes local context informationas well as global sentiment representation. The architecture is applicable for both sentence-level and document-level texts. We take global sentiment representation as a simple average of word embeddings in the text, and use a corruption strategy as a sentiment-dependent regularization. Extensive experiments conducted on several benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed architecture outperforms the state-of-the-art methods for sentiment classification.