Dynamic Bayesian networks have been applied widely to reconstruct the structure of regulatory processes from time series data. The standard approach is based on the assumption of a homogeneous Markov chain, which is not valid in many real-world scenarios. Recent research efforts addressing this shortcoming have considered undirected graphs, directed graphs for discretized data, or over-flexible models that lack any information sharing between time series segments. In the present article, we propose a non-stationary dynamic Bayesian network for continuous data, in which parameters are allowed to vary between segments, and in which a common network structure provides essential information sharing across segments. Our model is based on a Bayesian change-point process, and we apply a variant of the allocation sampler of Nobile and Fearnside to infer the number and location of the change-points.
Conventional dynamic Bayesian networks (DBNs) are based on the homogeneous Markov assumption, which is too restrictive in many practical applications. Various approaches to relax the homogeneity assumption have therefore been proposed in the last few years. The present paper aims to improve the flexibility of two recent versions of non-homogeneous DBNs, which either (i) suffer from the need for data discretization, or (ii) assume a time-invariant network structure. Allowing the network structure to be fully flexible leads to the risk of overfitting and inflated inference uncertainty though, especially in the highly topical field of systems biology, where independent measurements tend to be sparse. In the present paper we investigate three conceptually different regularization schemes based on inter-segment information sharing. We assess the performance in a comparative evaluation study based on simulated data. We compare the predicted segmentation of gene expression time series obtained during embryogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster with other state-of-the-art techniques. We conclude our evaluation with an application to synthetic biology, where the objective is to predict a known regulatory network of five genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
We consider the problem of change-point detection in multivariate time-series. The multivariate distribution of the observations is supposed to follow a graphical model, whose graph and parameters are affected by abrupt changes throughout time. We demonstrate that it is possible to perform exact Bayesian inference whenever one considers a simple class of undirected graphs called spanning trees as possible structures. We are then able to integrate on the graph and segmentation spaces at the same time by combining classical dynamic programming with algebraic results pertaining to spanning trees. In particular, we show that quantities such as posterior distributions for change-points or posterior edge probabilities over time can efficiently be obtained. We illustrate our results on both synthetic and experimental data arising from biology and neuroscience.
Estimating patient's clinical state from multiple concurrent physiological streams plays an important role in determining if a therapeutic intervention is necessary and for triaging patients in the hospital. In this paper we construct a non-parametric learning algorithm to estimate the clinical state of a patient. The algorithm addresses several known challenges with clinical state estimation such as eliminating bias introduced by therapeutic intervention censoring, increasing the timeliness of state estimation while ensuring a sufficient accuracy, and the ability to detect anomalous clinical states. These benefits are obtained by combining the tools of non-parametric Bayesian inference, permutation testing, and generalizations of the empirical Bernstein inequality. The algorithm is validated using real-world data from a cancer ward in a large academic hospital.
Stephen M. Omohundro International Computer Science Institute 1947 CenteJ' Street, Suite 600 Berkeley, California 94704 Abstract "Best-first model merging" is a general technique for dynamically choosing the structure of a neural or related architecture while avoiding overfitting.It is applicable to both leaming and recognition tasks and often generalizes significantly better than fixed structures. We demonstrate theapproach applied to the tasks of choosing radial basis functions for function learning, choosing local affine models for curve and constraint surface modelling, and choosing the structure of a balltree or bumptree to maximize efficiency of access. 1 TOWARD MORE COGNITIVE LEARNING Standard backpropagation neural networks learn in a way which appears to be quite different fromhuman leaming. Viewed as a cognitive system, a standard network always maintains acomplete model of its domain. This model is mostly wrong initially, but gets gradually better and better as data appears. The net deals with all data in much the same way and has no representation for the strength of evidence behind a certain conclusion. The network architecture is usually chosen before any data is seen and the processing is much the same in the early phases of learning as in the late phases.