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Goal Recognition Design in Deterministic Environments

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

Goal recognition design (GRD) facilitates understanding the goals of acting agents through the analysis and redesign of goal recognition models, thus offering a solution for assessing and minimizing the maximal progress of any agent in the model before goal recognition is guaranteed. In a nutshell, given a model of a domain and a set of possible goals, a solution to a GRD problem determines (1) the extent to which actions performed by an agent within the model reveal the agent’s objective; and (2) how best to modify the model so that the objective of an agent can be detected as early as possible. This approach is relevant to any domain in which rapid goal recognition is essential and the model design can be controlled. Applications include intrusion detection, assisted cognition, computer games, and human-robot collaboration. A GRD problem has two components: the analyzed goal recognition setting, and a design model specifying the possible ways the environment in which agents act can be modified so as to facilitate recognition. This work formulates a general framework for GRD in deterministic and partially observable environments, and offers a toolbox of solutions for evaluating and optimizing model quality for various settings. For the purpose of evaluation we suggest the worst case distinctiveness (WCD) measure, which represents the maximal cost of a path an agent may follow before its goal can be inferred by a goal recognition system. We offer novel compilations to classical planning for calculating WCD in settings where agents are bounded-suboptimal. We then suggest methods for minimizing WCD by searching for an optimal redesign strategy within the space of possible modifications, and using pruning to increase efficiency. We support our approach with an empirical evaluation that measures WCD in a variety of GRD settings and tests the efficiency of our compilation-based methods for computing it. We also examine the effectiveness of reducing WCD via redesign and the performance gain brought about by our proposed pruning strategy.


A Bayesian Model for Plan Recognition in RTS Games applied to StarCraft

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The task of keyhole (unobtrusive) plan recognition is central to adaptive game AI. "Tech trees" or "build trees" are the core of real-time strategy (RTS) game strategic (long term) planning. This paper presents a generic and simple Bayesian model for RTS build tree prediction from noisy observations, which parameters are learned from replays (game logs). This unsupervised machine learning approach involves minimal work for the game developers as it leverage players' data (com- mon in RTS). We applied it to StarCraft1 and showed that it yields high quality and robust predictions, that can feed an adaptive AI.


Artificial Intelligence for Social Good: A Survey

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Its impact is drastic and real: Youtube's AIdriven recommendation system would present sports videos for days if one happens to watch a live baseball game on the platform [1]; email writing becomes much faster with machine learning (ML) based auto-completion [2]; many businesses have adopted natural language processing based chatbots as part of their customer services [3]. AI has also greatly advanced human capabilities in complex decision-making processes ranging from determining how to allocate security resources to protect airports [4] to games such as poker [5] and Go [6]. All such tangible and stunning progress suggests that an "AI summer" is happening. As some put it, "AI is the new electricity" [7]. Meanwhile, in the past decade, an emerging theme in the AI research community is the so-called "AI for social good" (AI4SG): researchers aim at developing AI methods and tools to address problems at the societal level and improve the wellbeing of the society.


Computing the Value of Computation for Planning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

An intelligent agent performs actions in order to achieve its goals. Such actions can either be externally directed, such as opening a door, or internally directed, such as writing data to a memory location or strengthening a synaptic connection. Some internal actions, to which we refer as computations, potentially help the agent choose better actions. Considering that (external) actions and computations might draw upon the same resources, such as time and energy, deciding when to act or compute, as well as what to compute, are detrimental to the performance of an agent. In an environment that provides rewards depending on an agent's behavior, an action's value is typically defined as the sum of expected long-term rewards succeeding the action (itself a complex quantity that depends on what the agent goes on to do after the action in question). However, defining the value of a computation is not as straightforward, as computations are only valuable in a higher order way, through the alteration of actions. This thesis offers a principled way of computing the value of a computation in a planning setting formalized as a Markov decision process. We present two different definitions of computation values: static and dynamic. They address two extreme cases of the computation budget: affording calculation of zero or infinitely many steps in the future. We show that these values have desirable properties, such as temporal consistency and asymptotic convergence. Furthermore, we propose methods for efficiently computing and approximating the static and dynamic computation values. We describe a sense in which the policies that greedily maximize these values can be optimal. We utilize these principles to construct Monte Carlo tree search algorithms that outperform most of the state-of-the-art in terms of finding higher quality actions given the same simulation resources.


Model-free, Model-based, and General Intelligence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

During the 60s and 70s, AI researchers explored intuitions about intelligence by writing programs that displayed intelligent behavior. Many good ideas came out from this work but programs written by hand were not robust or general. After the 80s, research increasingly shifted to the development of learners capable of inferring behavior and functions from experience and data, and solvers capable of tackling well-defined but intractable models like SAT, classical planning, Bayesian networks, and POMDPs. The learning approach has achieved considerable success but results in black boxes that do not have the flexibility, transparency, and generality of their model-based counterparts. Model-based approaches, on the other hand, require models and scalable algorithms. Model-free learners and model-based solvers have close parallels with Systems 1 and 2 in current theories of the human mind: the first, a fast, opaque, and inflexible intuitive mind; the second, a slow, transparent, and flexible analytical mind. In this paper, I review developments in AI and draw on these theories to discuss the gap between model-free learners and model-based solvers, a gap that needs to be bridged in order to have intelligent systems that are robust and general.