--Knowledge representation of graph-based systems is fundamental across many disciplines. T o date, most existing methods for representation learning primarily focus on networks with simplex labels, yet real-world objects (nodes) are inherently complex in nature and often contain rich semantics or labels, e . The multi-label network nodes not only have multiple labels for each node, such labels are often highly correlated making existing methods ineffective or fail to handle such correlation for node representation learning. In this paper, we propose a novel multi-label graph convolutional network (ML-GCN) for learning node representation for multi-label networks. T o fully explore label-label correlation and network topology structures, we propose to model a multi-label network as two Siamese GCNs: a node-node-label graph and a label-label-node graph. The two GCNs each handle one aspect of representation learning for nodes and labels, respectively, and they are seamlessly integrated under one objective function. The learned label representations can effectively preserve the inner-label interaction and node label properties, and are then aggregated to enhance the node representation learning under a unified training framework. Experiments and comparisons on multi-label node classification validate the effectiveness of our proposed approach. Graphs have become increasingly common structures for organizing data in many complex systems such as sensor networks, citation networks, social networks and many more . Such a development raised new requirement of efficient network representation or embedding learning algorithms for various real-world applications, which seeks to learn low-dimensional vector representations of all nodes with preserved graph topology structures, such as edge links, degrees, and communities etc.
Multi-label learning is concerned with the classification of data with multiple class labels. This is in contrast to the traditional classification problem where every data instance has a single label. Due to the exponential size of output space, exploiting intrinsic information in feature and label spaces has been the major thrust of research in recent years and use of parametrization and embedding have been the prime focus. Researchers have studied several aspects of embedding which include label embedding, input embedding, dimensionality reduction and feature selection. These approaches differ from one another in their capability to capture other intrinsic properties such as label correlation, local invariance etc. We assume here that the input data form groups and as a result, the label matrix exhibits a sparsity pattern and hence the labels corresponding to objects in the same group have similar sparsity. In this paper, we study the embedding of labels together with the group information with an objective to build an efficient multi-label classification. We assume the existence of a low-dimensional space onto which the feature vectors and label vectors can be embedded. In order to achieve this, we address three sub-problems namely; (1) Identification of groups of labels; (2) Embedding of label vectors to a low rank-space so that the sparsity characteristic of individual groups remains invariant; and (3) Determining a linear mapping that embeds the feature vectors onto the same set of points, as in stage 2, in the low-dimensional space. We compare our method with seven well-known algorithms on twelve benchmark data sets. Our experimental analysis manifests the superiority of our proposed method over state-of-art algorithms for multi-label learning.
An important problem in multi-label classification is to capture label patterns or underlying structures that have an impact on such patterns. This paper addresses one such problem, namely how to exploit hierarchical structures over labels. We present a novel method to learn vector representations of a label space given a hierarchy of labels and label co-occurrence patterns. Our experimental results demonstrate qualitatively that the proposed method is able to learn regularities among labels by exploiting a label hierarchy as well as label co-occurrences. It highlights the importance of the hierarchical information in order to obtain regularities which facilitate analogical reasoning over a label space. We also experimentally illustrate the dependency of the learned representations on the label hierarchy.
In domain adaptation the source (training) domain is related to but different from the target (testing) domain. During training, the algorithm can only have access to labeled samples from source domain and unlabeled samples from target domain. The goal is to generalize on the target domain. One of the backbone assumptions underpinning the generalization theory of supervised learning algorithms is that the test distribution should be the same as the training distribution. However in many real-world applications it is usually time-consuming or even infeasible to collect labeled data from all the possible scenarios where our learning system is going to be deployed.
We propose EP, Embedding Propagation, an unsupervised learning framework for graph-structured data. EP learns vector representations of graphs by passing two types of messages between neighboring nodes. Forward messages consist of label representations such as representations of words and other attributes associated with the nodes. Backward messages consist of gradients that result from aggregating the label representations and applying a reconstruction loss. Node representations are finally computed from the representation of their labels.