Expressive query languages are gaining relevance in knowledge representation (KR), and new reasoning problems come to the fore. Especially query containment is interesting in this context. The problem is known to be decidable for many expressive query languages, but exact complexities are often missing. We introduce a new query language, guarded queries (GQ), which generalizes most known languages where query containment is decidable. GQs can be nested (more expressive), or restricted to linear recursion (less expressive). Our comprehensive analysis of the computational properties and expressiveness of (linear/nested) GQs also yields insights on many previous languages.
Applications of description logics (DLs) such as ontology-based data access (OBDA) require understanding of how to pose database queries over DL knowledge bases. While there have been many studies regarding traditional relational query formalisms such as conjunctive queries and their extensions, little attention has been paid to graph database queries, despite the fact that graph databases have essentially the same structure as knowledge bases. In particular, not much is known about the interplay between DLs and XPath. The latter is a powerful formalism for querying semistructured data: it is in the core of most practical query languages for XML trees, and it is also gaining popularity in theory and practice of graph databases. In this paper we make a step towards coupling knowledge bases and graph databases by studying how to answer powerful XPath-style queries over simple DLs like DL-Lite and EL. We start with adapting the definition of XPath to the DL context, and then proceed to study the complexity of evaluating XPath queries over knowledge bases. Results show that, while query answering is undecidable for the full XPath, by carefully tuning the shape of negation allowed in the queries we can arrive at XPath fragments that have a potential to be used in practice.
Some applications of Description Logic (DL) ontologies combine complete information (e.g., stemming from relational databases) with incomplete, open-world knowledge. Several research efforts in the last years have advocated closed predicates, which are predicates whose extension is interpreted as complete, as a suitable way to leverage partial completeness within the standard open-world semantics of DLs. These works have also studied the data complexity of query answering in the presence of closed predicates, which is generally intractable. In this paper we contribute to the understanding the combined complexity of the problem, by establishing tight complexity results for a range of DLs and query answering problems. In summary, our results show that consistency testing and instance query answering in the presence of closed predicates are feasible in NP even for rich dialects of the DL-Lite family; this is the lowest complexity that could be expected. For EL, in contrast, they are EXPTIME-complete, thus as hard as for ALC and some of its extensions. If unions of conjunctive queries (UCQs) are considered, the picture is even bleaker: we can show 2EXPTIME-hardness even for DL-Lite_R and EL. This is in sharp contrast to the NP-upper bound in the standard setting without closed predicates, and coincides with known upper bounds for much richer DLs. We note that our results imply 2EXPTIME-hardness of query answering in ALCO for the standard setting, where all predicates are interpreted under the open-world semantics. This singles out nominals as a previously unidentified source of complexity when answering queries over expressive DLs. Despite these negative results, we can still identify several useful classes of queries for which the increase in hardness is not as drastic, and the combined complexity of query answering remains between NP and coNEXPTIME.
Lukasiewicz, Thomas (University of Oxford) | Martinez, Maria Vanina (Universidad Nacional del Sur and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas CONICET) | Pieris, Andreas (Vienna University of Technology) | Simari, Gerardo I (Universidad Nacional del Sur and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas CONICET)
Querying inconsistent ontologies is an intriguing new problem that gave rise to a flourishing research activity in the description logic (DL) community. The computational complexity of consistent query answering under the main DLs is rather well understood; however, little is known about existential rules. The goal of the current work is to perform an in-depth analysis of the complexity of consistent query answering under the main decidable classes of existential rules enriched with negative constraints. Our investigation focuses on one of the most prominent inconsistency-tolerant semantics, namely, the AR semantics. We establish a generic complexity result, which demonstrates the tight connection between classical and consistent query answering. This result allows us to obtain in a uniform way a relatively complete picture of the complexity of our problem.
We establish complexities of the conjunctive query entailment problem for classes of existential rules (i.e. Tuple-Generating Dependencies or Datalog+/- rules). Our contribution is twofold. First, we introduce the class of greedy bounded treewidth sets (gbts), which covers guarded rules, and their known generalizations, namely (weakly) frontier-guarded rules. We provide a generic algorithm for query entailment with gbts, which is worst-case optimal for combined complexity with bounded predicate arity, as well as for data complexity. Second, we classify several gbts classes, whose complexity was unknown, namely frontier-one, frontier-guarded and weakly frontier-guarded rules, with respect to combined complexity (with bounded and unbounded predicate arity) and data complexity.