We offer a complete characterization of the set of distributions that could be induced by local interventions on variables governed by a causal Bayesian network of unknown structure, in which some of the variables remain unmeasured. We show that such distributions are constrained by a simply formulated set of inequalities, from which bounds can be derived on causal effects that are not directly measured in randomized experiments.

We present a class of inequality constraints on the set of distributions induced by local interventions on variables governed by a causal Bayesian network, in which some of the variables remain unmeasured. We derive bounds on causal effects that are not directly measured in randomized experiments. We derive instrumental inequality type of constraints on nonexperimental distributions. The results have applications in testing causal models with observational or experimental data.

The subject of this paper is the elucidation of effects of actions from causal assumptions represented as a directed graph, and statistical knowledge given as a probability distribution. In particular, we are interested in predicting conditional distributions resulting from performing an action on a set of variables and, subsequently, taking measurements of another set. We provide a necessary and sufficient graphical condition for the cases where such distributions can be uniquely computed from the available information, as well as an algorithm which performs this computation whenever the condition holds. Furthermore, we use our results to prove completeness of do-calculus [Pearl, 1995] for the same identification problem.

This paper concerns the assessment of the effects of actions or policy interventions from a combination of: (i) nonexperimental data, and (ii) substantive assumptions. The assumptions are encoded in the form of a directed acyclic graph, also called "causal graph", in which some variables are presumed to be unobserved. The paper establishes a necessary and sufficient criterion for the identifiability of the causal effects of a singleton variable on all other variables in the model, and a powerful sufficient criterion for the effects of a singleton variable on any set of variables.

This paper concerns the assessment of the effects of actions from a combination of nonexperimental data and causal assumptions encoded in the form of a directed acyclic graph in which some variables are presumed to be unobserved. We provide a procedure that systematically identifies cause effects between two sets of variables conditioned on some other variables, in time polynomial in the number of variables in the graph. The identifiable conditional causal effects are expressed in terms of the observed joint distribution.