A Novel Two-Step Method for Cross Language Representation Learning

Neural Information Processing Systems

Cross language text classification is an important learning task in natural language processing. A critical challenge of cross language learning lies in that words of different languages are in disjoint feature spaces. In this paper, we propose a two-step representation learning method to bridge the feature spaces of different languages by exploiting a set of parallel bilingual documents. Specifically, we first formulate a matrix completion problem to produce a complete parallel document-term matrix for all documents in two languages, and then induce a cross-lingual document representation by applying latent semantic indexing on the obtained matrix. We use a projected gradient descent algorithm to solve the formulated matrix completion problem with convergence guarantees. The proposed approach is evaluated by conducting a set of experiments with cross language sentiment classification tasks on Amazon product reviews. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed learning approach outperforms a number of comparison cross language representation learning methods, especially when the number of parallel bilingual documents is small.

Semi-Supervised Matrix Completion for Cross-Lingual Text Classification

AAAI Conferences

Cross-lingual text classification is the task of assigning labels to observed documents in a label-scarce target language domain by using a prediction model trained with labeled documents from a label-rich source language domain. Cross-lingual text classification is popularly studied in natural language processing area to reduce the expensive manual annotation effort required in the target language domain. In this work, we propose a novel semi-supervised representation learning approach to address this challenging task by inducing interlingual features via semi-supervised matrix completion. To evaluate the proposed learning technique, we conduct extensive experiments on eighteen cross language sentiment classification tasks with four different languages. The empirical results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach, and show it outperforms a number of related cross-lingual learning methods.

A Subspace Learning Framework for Cross-Lingual Sentiment Classification with Partial Parallel Data

AAAI Conferences

Cross-lingual sentiment classification aims to automatically predict sentiment polarity (e.g., positive or negative) of data in a label-scarce target language by exploiting labeled data from a label-rich language. The fundamental challenge of cross-lingual learning stems from a lack of overlap between the feature spaces of the source language data and that of the target language data. To address this challenge, previous work in the literature mainly relies on the large amount of bilingual parallel corpora to bridge the language gap. In many real applications, however, it is often the case that we have some partial parallel data but it is an expensive and time-consuming job to acquire large amount of parallel data on different languages. In this paper, we propose a novel subspace learning framework by leveraging the partial parallel data for cross-lingual sentiment classification. The proposed approach is achieved by jointly learning the document-aligned review data and un-aligned data from the source language and the target language via a non-negative matrix factorization framework. We conduct a set of experiments with cross-lingual sentiment classification tasks on multilingual Amazon product reviews. Our experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed cross-lingual approach.

Structural Correspondence Learning for Cross-Lingual Sentiment Classification with One-to-Many Mappings

AAAI Conferences

Structural correspondence learning (SCL) is an effective method for cross-lingual sentiment classification. This approach uses unlabeled documents along with a word translation oracle to automatically induce task specific, cross-lingual correspondences. It transfers knowledge through identifying important features, i.e., pivot features. For simplicity, however, it assumes that the word translation oracle maps each pivot feature in source language to exactly only one word in target language. This one-to-one mapping between words in different languages is too strict. Also the context is not considered at all. In this paper, we propose a cross-lingual SCL based on distributed representation of words; it can learn meaningful one-to-many mappings for pivot words using large amounts of monolingual data and a small dictionary. We conduct experiments on NLP&CC 2013 cross-lingual sentiment analysis dataset, employing English as source language, and Chinese as target language. Our method does not rely on the parallel corpora and the experimental results show that our approach is more competitive than the state-of-the-art methods in cross-lingual sentiment classification.

A survey of cross-lingual embedding models


In past blog posts, we discussed different models, objective functions, and hyperparameter choices that allow us to learn accurate word embeddings. However, these models are generally restricted to capture representations of words in the language they were trained on. The availability of resources, training data, and benchmarks in English leads to a disproportionate focus on the English language and a negligence of the plethora of other languages that are spoken around the world. In our globalised society, where national borders increasingly blur, where the Internet gives everyone equal access to information, it is thus imperative that we do not only seek to eliminate bias pertaining to gender or race inherent in our representations, but also aim to address our bias towards language. To remedy this and level the linguistic playing field, we would like to leverage our existing knowledge in English to equip our models with the capability to process other languages. Perfect machine translation (MT) would allow this. However, we do not need to actually translate examples, as long as we are able to project examples into a common subspace such as the one in Figure 1. Ultimately, our goal is to learn a shared embedding space between words in all languages. Equipped with such a vector space, we are able to train our models on data in any language. By projecting examples available in one language into this space, our model simultaneously obtains the capability to perform predictions in all other languages (we are glossing over some considerations here; for these, refer to this section). This is the promise of cross-lingual embeddings. Over the course of this blog post, I will give an overview of models and algorithms that have been used to come closer to this elusive goal of capturing the relations between words in multiple languages in a common embedding space. Note: While neural MT approaches implicitly learn a shared cross-lingual embedding space by optimizing for the MT objective, we will focus on models that explicitly learn cross-lingual word representations throughout this blog post. These methods generally do so at a much lower cost than MT and can be considered to be to MT what word embedding models (word2vec, GloVe, etc.) are to language modelling.