Expanding Domain Sentiment Lexicon through Double Propagation

AAAI Conferences

In most sentiment analysis applications, the sentiment lexicon plays a key role. However, it is hard, if not impossible, to collect and maintain a universal sentiment lexicon for all application domains because different words may be used in different domains. The main existing technique extracts such sentiment words from a large domain corpus based on different conjunctions and the idea of sentiment coherency in a sentence. In this paper, we propose a novel propagation approach that exploits the relations between sentiment words and topics or product features that the sentiment words modify, and also sentiment words and product features themselves to extract new sentiment words. As the method propagates information through both sentiment words and features, we call it double propagation. The extraction rules are designed based on relations described in dependency trees. A new method is also proposed to assign polarities to newly discovered sentiment words in a domain. Experimental results show that our approach is able to extract a large number of new sentiment words. The polarity assignment method is also effective.

Extracting Diverse Sentiment Expressions with Target-Dependent Polarity from Twitter

AAAI Conferences

The problem of automatic extraction of sentiment expressions from informal text, as in microblogs such as tweets is a recent area of investigation. Compared to formal text, such as in product reviews or news articles, one of the key challenges lies in the wide diversity and informal nature of sentiment expressions that cannot be trivially enumerated or captured using predefined lexical patterns. In this work, we present an optimization-based approach to automatically extract sentiment expressions for a given target (e.g., movie, or person) from a corpus of unlabeled tweets. Specifically, we make three contributions: (i) we recognize a diverse and richer set of sentiment-bearing expressions in tweets, including formal and slang words/phrases, not limited to pre-specified syntactic patterns; (ii) instead of associating sentiment with an entire tweet, we assess the target-dependent polarity of each sentiment expression. The polarity of sentiment expression is determined by the nature of its target; (iii) we provide a novel formulation of assigning polarity to a sentiment expression as a constrained optimization problem over the tweet corpus. Experiments conducted on two domains, tweets mentioning movie and person entities, show that our approach improves accuracy in comparison with several baseline methods, and that the improvement becomes more prominent with increasing corpus sizes.

Predicting the Polarity Strength of Adjectives Using WordNet

AAAI Conferences

A key element of any sentiment analysis system is the ability to assign a polarity strength value to words appearing within the documents. In this paper we present a novel approach to polarity strength assignment. The approach is knowledge based in that it uses WordNet to build an adjective graph which is used to measure semantic distance between words of known polarity (reference or seed words) and the target word, which is then used to assign a polarity to the target word. We extend previous work in this area by using a small training data set to learn an optimal predictor of polarity strength and to dampen polarity assigned to non-polar adjectives. We also extend the coverage of previous approaches by exploring additional lexical relations not studied previously. The method has been evaluated on a validation set and shows excellent potential in reducing the assignment of spurious polarity and accurately predicting polarity values for polar adjectives.

Twitter Sentiment Analysis: Lexicon Method, Machine Learning Method and Their Combination

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This paper covers the two approaches for sentiment analysis: i) lexicon based method; ii) machine learning method. We describe several techniques to implement these approaches and discuss how they can be adopted for sentiment classification of Twitter messages. We present a comparative study of different lexicon combinations and show that enhancing sentiment lexicons with emoticons, abbreviations and social-media slang expressions increases the accuracy of lexicon-based classification for Twitter. We discuss the importance of feature generation and feature selection processes for machine learning sentiment classification. To quantify the performance of the main sentiment analysis methods over Twitter we run these algorithms on a benchmark Twitter dataset from the SemEval-2013 competition, task 2-B. The results show that machine learning method based on SVM and Naive Bayes classifiers outperforms the lexicon method. We present a new ensemble method that uses a lexicon based sentiment score as input feature for the machine learning approach. The combined method proved to produce more precise classifications. We also show that employing a cost-sensitive classifier for highly unbalanced datasets yields an improvement of sentiment classification performance up to 7%.

Sentiment Analysis of Short Informal Texts

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

We describe a state-of-the-art sentiment analysis system that detects (a) the sentiment of short informal textual messages such as tweets and SMS (message-level task) and (b) the sentiment of a word or a phrase within a message (term-level task). The system is based on a supervised statistical text classification approach leveraging a variety of surface-form, semantic, and sentiment features. The sentiment features are primarily derived from novel high-coverage tweet-specific sentiment lexicons. These lexicons are automatically generated from tweets with sentiment-word hashtags and from tweets with emoticons. To adequately capture the sentiment of words in negated contexts, a separate sentiment lexicon is generated for negated words. The system ranked first in the SemEval-2013 shared task `Sentiment Analysis in Twitter' (Task 2), obtaining an F-score of 69.02 in the message-level task and 88.93 in the term-level task. Post-competition improvements boost the performance to an F-score of 70.45 (message-level task) and 89.50 (term-level task). The system also obtains state-of-the-art performance on two additional datasets: the SemEval-2013 SMS test set and a corpus of movie review excerpts. The ablation experiments demonstrate that the use of the automatically generated lexicons results in performance gains of up to 6.5 absolute percentage points.