Autonomous systems must consider the moral ramifications of their actions. Moral norms vary among people and depend on common sense, posing a challenge for encoding them explicitly in a system. I propose to develop a model of repeated analogical chaining and analogical reasoning to enable autonomous agents to interactively learn to apply common sense and model an individual’s moral norms.
To deceive involves corrupting the predictions or explanations of others. A deeper understanding of how this works thus requires modeling how human abduction and prediction operate. This paper proposes that most human abduction and prediction are carried out via analogy, over experience and generalizations constructed from experience. I take experience to include cultural products, such as stories. How analogical reasoning and learning can be used to make predictions and explanations is outlined, along with both the advantages of this approach and the technical questions that it raises. Concrete examples involving deception and counter-deception are used to explore these ideas further.
Analogy is heavily used in instructional texts. We introduce the concept of analogical dialogue acts (ADAs), which represent the roles utterances play in instructional analogies. We describe a catalog of such acts, based on ideas from structure-mapping theory. We focus on the operations that these acts lead to while understanding instructional texts, using the Structure-Mapping Engine (SME) and dynamic case construction in a computational model. We test this model on a small corpus of instructional analogies expressed in simplified English, which were understood via a semi-automatic natural language system using analogical dialogue acts. The model enabled a system to answer questions after understanding the analogies that it was not able to answer without them.
This paper explores the use of analogy to learn about properties of sketches. Sketches often convey conceptual relationships between entities via the visual relationships between their depictions in the sketch. Understanding these conventions is an important part of adapting to a user. This paper describes how learning by accumulating examples can be used to make suggestions about such relationships in new sketches. We describe how sketches are being used in Companion Cognitive Systems to illustrate one context in which this problem arises. We describe how existing cognitive simulations of analogical matching and retrieval are used to generate suggestions for new sketches based on analogies with prior sketches. Two experiments provide evidence as to the accuracy and coverage of this technique.