We present the multiplicative recurrent neural network as a general model for compositional meaning in language, and evaluate it on the task of fine-grained sentiment analysis. We establish a connection to the previously investigated matrix-space models for compositionality, and show they are special cases of the multiplicative recurrent net. Our experiments show that these models perform comparably or better than Elman-type additive recurrent neural networks and outperform matrix-space models on a standard fine-grained sentiment analysis corpus. Furthermore, they yield comparable results to structural deep models on the recently published Stanford Sentiment Treebank without the need for generating parse trees.
Recursive neural models have achieved promising results in many natural language processing tasks. The main difference among these models lies in the composition function, i.e., how to obtain the vector representation for a phrase or sentence using the representations of words it contains. This paper introduces a novel Adaptive Multi-Compositionality (AdaMC) layer to recursive neural models. The basic idea is to use more than one composition functions and adaptively select them depending on the input vectors. We present a general framework to model each semantic composition as a distribution over these composition functions. The composition functions and parameters used for adaptive selection are learned jointly from data. We integrate AdaMC into existing recursive neural models and conduct extensive experiments on the Stanford Sentiment Treebank. The results illustrate that AdaMC significantly outperforms state-of-the-art sentiment classification methods. It helps push the best accuracy of sentence-level negative/positive classification from 85.4% up to 88.5%.
Modelling compositionality has been a longstanding area of research in the field of vector space semantics. The categorical approach to compositionality maps grammar onto vector spaces in a principled way, but comes under fire for requiring the formation of very high-dimensional matrices and tensors, and therefore being computationally infeasible. In this paper I show how a linear simplification of recursive neural tensor network models can be mapped directly onto the categorical approach, giving a way of computing the required matrices and tensors. This mapping suggests a number of lines of research for both categorical compositional vector space models of meaning and for recursive neural network models of compositionality.
This survey presents in some detail the main advances that have been recently taking place in Computational Linguistics towards the unification of the two prominent semantic paradigms: the compositional formal semantics view and the distributional models of meaning based on vector spaces. After an introduction to these two approaches, I review the most important models that aim to provide compositionality in distributional semantics. Then I proceed and present in more detail a particular framework by Coecke, Sadrzadeh and Clark (2010) based on the abstract mathematical setting of category theory, as a more complete example capable to demonstrate the diversity of techniques and scientific disciplines that this kind of research can draw from. This paper concludes with a discussion about important open issues that need to be addressed by the researchers in the future.
This paper summarises the current state-of-the art in the study of compositionality in distributional semantics, and major challenges for this area. We single out generalised quantifiers and intensional semantics as areas on which to focus attention for the development of the theory. Once suitable theories have been developed, algorithms will be needed to apply the theory to tasks. Evaluation is a major problem; we single out application to recognising textual entailment and machine translation for this purpose.