A fundamental challenge in biological research is achieving an atomic-level description and mechanistic understanding of the function of biomolecules. Techniques for biomolecular simulations have undergone substantial developments, and their accuracy and scope have expanded considerably. Progress has been made through an increasingly tight integration of experiments and simulations, with experiments being used to refine simulations and simulations used to interpret experiments. Here we review the underpinnings of this progress, including methods for more efficient conformational sampling, accuracy of the physical models used, and theoretical approaches to integrate experiments and simulations. These developments are enabling detailed studies of complex biomolecular assemblies.
He said: "If we're indeed a simulation, then that would be a logical possibility, that what we're measuring aren't really the laws of nature, they're some sort of attempt at some sort of artificial law that the simulators have come up with". Some academics are sceptical of the'Matrix theory'. Professor Peter Millican, who teaches a philosophy and computer science degree at Oxford University, said: "The theory seems to be based on the assumption that'superminds' would do things in much the same way as we would do them." "If they think this world is a simulation, then why do they think the superminds – who are outside the simulation – would be constrained by the same sorts of thoughts and methods that we are?" However, he did concede it was beneficial to conduct research into such theories.