A standard model of how brains produce natural cognition would provide a framework for organizing cognitive neuroscience research. A recent effort (Laird et al., in press) to build on consensus views of cognitive operations and produce a standard model of natural cognition started with common aspects of well-established cognitive architectures ACT-R, Sigma, and SOAR. The model captures scientific consensus on “how” the brain works, but it does not offer a coherent story for “why” the component modules (i.e., working memory, long-term memory, visual and motor areas) exist and interact in the ways described. This manuscript starts with background information on a well-cited theory of action selection, and extends that theory to a fuller explanation of decision-making, action and perception that includes a framework for the elements of cognition.
We propose an alternative and unifying framework for decision-making that, by using quantum mechanics, provides more generalised cognitive and decision models with the ability to represent more information than classical models. This framework can accommodate and predict several cognitive biases reported in Lieder & Griffiths without heavy reliance on heuristics nor on assumptions of the computational resources of the mind. Expected utility theory and classical probabilities tell us what people should do if employing traditionally rational thought, but do not tell us what people do in reality (Machina, 2009). Under this principle, L&G propose an architecture for cognition that can serve as an intermediary layer between Neuroscience and Computation. Whilst instances where large expenditures of cognitive resources occur are theoretically alluded to, the model primarily assumes a preference for fast, heuristic-based processing.
We present a Companion-based Ambient Robust INtelliGence (CARING) system, for communication with, and support of, clients with Traumatic brain injury (TBI) or Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). A central component of this system is an artificial companion, combined with a range of elements for ambient intelligence. The companion acts as a personalized intermediary for multi-party communication between the client, the environment (e.g. a Smart Home), caregivers and health professionals. CARING is based on tightly coupled systems drawing from natural language processing, speech recognition and adaptation, deep language understanding and constraint-based knowledge representation and reasoning. A major innovation of the system is its ability to adapt and accommodate different interfaces associated with different client capabilities and needs. The system will use, as a proxy, different interaction requirements of clients (e.g., Brain-Computer Interfaces) at different stages of ALS progression and with different types of TBI impairments. Ultimately, this technology is expected to improve the quality of life for clients through conversation with a computer.
This course gives a mathematical introduction to neural coding and dynamics. Topics include convolution, correlation, linear systems, game theory, signal detection theory, probability theory, information theory, and reinforcement learning. Applications to neural coding, focusing on the visual system are covered, as well as Hodgkin-Huxley and other related models of neural excitability, stochastic models of ion channels, cable theory, and models of synaptic transmission.