Using supervised and unsupervised features individually or together, we (a) detect and filter out noisy workers via Z-score, and (b) weight worker votes for consensus labeling. We evaluate on noisy labels from Amazon Mechanical Turk in which workers judge Web search relevance of query/document pairs. In comparison to a majority vote baseline, results show a 6% error reduction (48.83% to 51.91%) for graded accuracy and 5% error reduction (64.88% to 68.33%) for binary accuracy.
Controlling the quality of tasks is a major challenge in crowdsourcing marketplaces. Most of the existing crowdsourcing services prohibit requesters from posting illegal or objectionable tasks. Operators in the marketplaces have to monitor the tasks continuously to find such improper tasks; however, it is too expensive to manually investigate each task. In this paper, we present the reports of our trial study on automatic detection of improper tasks to support the monitoring of activities by marketplace operators. We perform experiments using real task data from a commercial crowdsourcing marketplace and show that the classifier trained by the operator judgments achieves high accuracy in detecting improper tasks. In addition, to reduce the annotation costs of the operator and improve the classification accuracy, we consider the use of crowdsourcing for task annotation. We hire a group of crowdsourcing (non-expert) workers to monitor posted tasks, and incorporate their judgments into the training data of the classifier. By applying quality control techniques to handle the variability in worker reliability, our results show that the use of non-expert judgments by crowdsourcing workers in combination with expert judgments improves the accuracy of detecting improper crowdsourcing tasks.
Many aspects of the design of efficient crowdsourcing processes, such as defining workers bonuses, fair prices and time limits of the tasks, involve knowledge of the likely duration of the task at hand. In this work we introduce a new timesensitive Bayesian aggregation method that simultaneously estimates a tasks duration and obtains reliable aggregations of crowdsourced judgments. Our method, called BCCTime, uses latent variables to represent the uncertainty about the workers completion time, the tasks duration and the workers accuracy. To relate the quality of a judgment to the time a worker spends on a task, our model assumes that each task is completed within a latent time window within which all workers with a propensity to genuinely attempt the labelling task (i.e., no spammers) are expected to submit their judgments. In contrast, workers with a lower propensity to valid labelling, such as spammers, bots or lazy labellers, are assumed to perform tasks considerably faster or slower than the time required by normal workers. Specifically, we use efficient message-passing Bayesian inference to learn approximate posterior probabilities of (i) the confusion matrix of each worker, (ii) the propensity to valid labelling of each worker, (iii) the unbiased duration of each task and (iv) the true label of each task. Using two real- world public datasets for entity linking tasks, we show that BCCTime produces up to 11% more accurate classifications and up to 100% more informative estimates of a tasks duration compared to stateoftheart methods.
Recently, there has been a burst in the number of research projects on human computation via crowdsourcing. Multiple choice (or labeling) questions could be referred to as a common type of problem which is solved by this approach. As an application, crowd labeling is applied to find true labels for large machine learning datasets. Since crowds are not necessarily experts, the labels they provide are rather noisy and erroneous. This challenge is usually resolved by collecting multiple labels for each sample, and then aggregating them to estimate the true label. Although the mechanism leads to high-quality labels, it is not actually cost-effective. As a result, efforts are currently made to maximize the accuracy in estimating true labels, while fixing the number of acquired labels. This paper surveys methods to aggregate redundant crowd labels in order to estimate unknown true labels. It presents a unified statistical latent model where the differences among popular methods in the field correspond to different choices for the parameters of the model. Afterwards, algorithms to make inference on these models will be surveyed. Moreover, adaptive methods which iteratively collect labels based on the previously collected labels and estimated models will be discussed. In addition, this paper compares the distinguished methods, and provides guidelines for future work required to address the current open issues.
Recently crowdsourcing services are often used to collect a large amount of labeled data for machine learning, since they provide us an easy way to get labels at very low cost and in a short period. The use of crowdsourcing has introduced a new challenge in machine learning, that is, coping with the variable quality of crowd-generated data. Although there have been many recent attempts to address the quality problem of multiple workers, only a few of the existing methods consider the problem of learning classifiers directly from such noisy data. All these methods modeled the true labels as latent variables, which resulted in non-convex optimization problems. In this paper, we propose a convex optimization formulation for learning from crowds without estimating the true labels by introducing personal models of the individual crowd workers. We also devise an efficient iterative method for solving the convex optimization problems by exploiting conditional independence structures in multiple classifiers. We evaluate the proposed method against three competing methods on synthetic data sets and a real crowdsourced data set and demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the other three methods.