Hierarchical Object Representation for Open-Ended Object Category Learning and Recognition

Neural Information Processing Systems

Most robots lack the ability to learn new objects from past experiences. To migrate a robot to a new environment one must often completely re-generate the knowledge- base that it is running with. Since in open-ended domains the set of categories to be learned is not predefined, it is not feasible to assume that one can pre-program all object categories required by robots. Therefore, autonomous robots must have the ability to continuously execute learning and recognition in a concurrent and interleaved fashion. This paper proposes an open-ended 3D object recognition system which concurrently learns both the object categories and the statistical features for encoding objects. In particular, we propose an extension of Latent Dirichlet Allocation to learn structural semantic features (i.e. topics) from low-level feature co-occurrences for each category independently. Moreover, topics in each category are discovered in an unsupervised fashion and are updated incrementally using new object views. The approach contains similarities with the organization of the visual cortex and builds a hierarchy of increasingly sophisticated representations. Results show the fulfilling performance of this approach on different types of objects. Moreover, this system demonstrates the capability of learning from few training examples and competes with state-of-the-art systems.

Acquiring Vocabulary through Human Robot Interaction: A Learning Architecture for Grounding Words with Multiple Meanings

AAAI Conferences

This paper presents a robust methodology for grounding vocabulary in robots. A social language grounding experiment is designed, where, a human instructor teaches a robotic agent the names of the objects present in a visually shared environment. Any system for grounding vocabulary has to incorporate the properties of gradual evolution and lifelong learning. The learning model of the robot is adopted from an ongoing work on developing systems that conform to these properties. Significant modifications have been introduced to the adopted model, especially to handle words with multiple meanings. A novel classification strategy has been developed for improving the performance of each classifier for each learned category. A set of six new nearest-neighbor based classifiers have also been integrated into the agent architecture. A series of experiments were conducted to test the performance of the new model on vocabulary acquisition. The robot was shown to be robust at acquiring vocabulary and has the potential to learn a far greater number of words (with either single or multiple meanings).

Learning to Recognize Novel Objects in One Shot through Human-Robot Interactions in Natural Language Dialogues

AAAI Conferences

Being able to quickly and naturally teach robots new knowledge is critical for many future open-world human-robot interaction scenarios. In this paper we present a novel approach to using natural language context for one-shot learning of visual objects, where the robot is immediately able to recognize the described object. We describe the architectural components and demonstrate the proposed approach on a robotic platform in a proof-of-concept evaluation.

Active Object Perceiver: Recognition-guided Policy Learning for Object Searching on Mobile Robots

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We study the problem of learning a navigation policy for a robot to actively search for an object of interest in an indoor environment solely from its visual inputs. While scene-driven visual navigation has been widely studied, prior efforts on learning navigation policies for robots to find objects are limited. The problem is often more challenging than target scene finding as the target objects can be very small in the view and can be in an arbitrary pose. We approach the problem from an active perceiver perspective, and propose a novel framework that integrates a deep neural network based object recognition module and a deep reinforcement learning based action prediction mechanism. To validate our method, we conduct experiments on both a simulation dataset (AI2-THOR) and a real-world environment with a physical robot. We further propose a new decaying reward function to learn the control policy specific to the object searching task. Experimental results validate the efficacy of our method, which outperforms competing methods in both average trajectory length and success rate.

Towards Bootstrap Learning for Object Discovery

AAAI Conferences

We show how a robot can autonomously learn an ontology of objects to explain aspects of its sensor input from an unknown dynamic world. Unsupervised learning about objects is an important conceptual step in developmental learning, whereby the agent clusters observations across space and time to construct stable perceptual representations of objects. Our proposed unsupervised learning method uses the properties of allocentric occupancy grids to classify individual sensor readings as static or dynamic. Dynamic readings are clustered and the clusters are tracked over time to identify objects, separating them both from the background of the environment and from the noise of unexplainable sensor readings. Once trackable clusters of sensor readings (i.e., objects) have been identified, we build shape models where they are stable and consistent properties of these objects. However, the representation can tolerate, represent, and track amorphous objects as well as those that have well-defined shape. In the end, the learned ontology makes it possible for the robot to describe a cluttered dynamic world with symbolic object descriptions along with a static environment model, both models grounded in sensory experience, and learned without external supervision.