We propose Embedding Propagation (EP), an unsupervised learning framework for graph-structured data. EP learns vector representations of graphs by passing two types of messages between neighboring nodes. Forward messages consist of label representations such as representations of words and other attributes associated with the nodes. Backward messages consist of gradients that result from aggregating the label representations and applying a reconstruction loss. Node representations are finally computed from the representation of their labels. With significantly fewer parameters and hyperparameters an instance of EP is competitive with and often outperforms state of the art unsupervised and semi-supervised learning methods on a range of benchmark data sets.
Auto-encoders have emerged as a successful framework for unsupervised learning. However, conventional auto-encoders are incapable of utilizing explicit relations in structured data. To take advantage of relations in graph-structured data, several graph auto-encoders have recently been proposed, but they neglect to reconstruct either the graph structure or node attributes. In this paper, we present the graph attention auto-encoder (GATE), a neural network architecture for unsupervised representation learning on graph-structured data. Our architecture is able to reconstruct graph-structured inputs, including both node attributes and the graph structure, through stacked encoder/decoder layers equipped with self-attention mechanisms. In the encoder, by considering node attributes as initial node representations, each layer generates new representations of nodes by attending over their neighbors' representations. In the decoder, we attempt to reverse the encoding process to reconstruct node attributes. Moreover, node representations are regularized to reconstruct the graph structure. Our proposed architecture does not need to know the graph structure upfront, and thus it can be applied to inductive learning. Our experiments demonstrate competitive performance on several node classification benchmark datasets for transductive and inductive tasks, even exceeding the performance of supervised learning baselines in most cases.
October 06, 2016 Posted by Sujith Ravi, Staff Research Scientist, Google Research Recently, there have been significant advances in Machine Learning that enable computer systems to solve complex real-world problems. One of those advances is Google's large scale, graph-based machine learning platform, built by the Expander team in Google Research. A technology that is behind many of the Google products and features you may use everyday, graph-based machine learning is a powerful tool that can be used to power useful features such as reminders in Inbox and smart messaging in Allo, or used in conjunction with deep neural networks to power the latest image recognition system in Google Photos. Learning with Minimal Supervision Much of the recent success in deep learning, and machine learning in general, can be attributed to models that demonstrate high predictive capacity when trained on large amounts of labeled data -- often millions of training examples. This is commonly referred to as "supervised learning" since it requires supervision, in the form of labeled data, to train the machine learning systems.
This work presents a joint solution to two challenging tasks: text generation from data and open information extraction. We propose to model both tasks as sequence-to-sequence translation problems and thus construct a joint neural model for both. Our experiments on knowledge graphs from Visual Genome, i.e., structured image analyses, shows promising results compared to strong baselines. Building on recent work on unsupervised machine translation, we report the first results - to the best of our knowledge - on fully unsupervised text generation from structured data.
Graph representation learning based on graph neural networks (GNNs) can greatly improve the performance of downstream tasks, such as node and graph classification. However, the general GNN models do not aggregate node information in a hierarchical manner, and can miss key higher-order structural features of many graphs. The hierarchical aggregation also enables the graph representations to be explainable. In addition, supervised graph representation learning requires labeled data, which is expensive and error-prone. To address these issues, we present an unsupervised graph representation learning method, Unsupervised Hierarchical Graph Representation (UHGR), which can generate hierarchical representations of graphs. Our method focuses on maximizing mutual information between "local" and high-level "global" representations, which enables us to learn the node embeddings and graph embeddings without any labeled data. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, we perform the node and graph classification using the learned node and graph embeddings. The results show that the proposed method achieves comparable results to state-of-the-art supervised methods on several benchmarks. In addition, our visualization of hierarchical representations indicates that our method can capture meaningful and interpretable clusters.