Importance of Semantic Representation: Dataless Classification

AAAI Conferences

Traditionally, text categorization has been studied as the problem of training of a classifier using labeled data. However, people can categorize documents into named categories without any explicit training because we know the meaning of category names. In this paper, we introduce Dataless Classification, a learning protocol that uses world knowledge to induce classifiers without the need for any labeled data. Like humans, a dataless classifier interprets a string of words as a set of semantic concepts. We propose a model for dataless classification and show that the label name alone is often sufficient to induce classifiers. Using Wikipedia as our source of world knowledge, we get 85.29% accuracy on tasks from the 20 Newsgroup dataset and 88.62% accuracy on tasks from a Yahoo! Answers dataset without any labeled or unlabeled data from the datasets. With unlabeled data, we can further improve the results and show quite competitive performance to a supervised learning algorithm that uses 100 labeled examples.


Dataless Text Classification with Descriptive LDA

AAAI Conferences

Manually labeling documents for training a text classifier is expensive and time-consuming. Moreover, a classifier trained on labeled documents may suffer from overfitting and adaptability problems. Dataless text classification (DLTC) has been proposed as a solution to these problems, since it does not require labeled documents. Previous research in DLTC has used explicit semantic analysis of Wikipedia content to measure semantic distance between documents, which is in turn used to classify test documents based on nearest neighbours. The semantic-based DLTC method has a major drawback in that it relies on a large-scale, finely-compiled semantic knowledge base, which is difficult to obtain in many scenarios. In this paper we propose a novel kind of model, descriptive LDA (DescLDA), which performs DLTC with only category description words and unlabeled documents. In DescLDA, the LDA model is assembled with a describing device to infer Dirichlet priors from prior descriptive documents created with category description words. The Dirichlet priors are then used by LDA to induce category-aware latent topics from unlabeled documents. Experimental results with the 20Newsgroups and RCV1 datasets show that: (1) our DLTC method is more effective than the semantic-based DLTC baseline method; and (2) the accuracy of our DLTC method is very close to state-of-the-art supervised text classification methods. As neither external knowledge resources nor labeled documents are required, our DLTC method is applicable to a wider range of scenarios.


Bayesian models for Large-scale Hierarchical Classification

Neural Information Processing Systems

A challenging problem in hierarchical classification is to leverage the hierarchical relations among classes for improving classification performance. An even greater challenge is to do so in a manner that is computationally feasible for the large scale problems usually encountered in practice. This paper proposes a set of Bayesian methods to model hierarchical dependencies among class labels using multivari- ate logistic regression. Specifically, the parent-child relationships are modeled by placing a hierarchical prior over the children nodes centered around the parame- ters of their parents; thereby encouraging classes nearby in the hierarchy to share similar model parameters. We present new, efficient variational algorithms for tractable posterior inference in these models, and provide a parallel implementa- tion that can comfortably handle large-scale problems with hundreds of thousands of dimensions and tens of thousands of classes.


Hernandez

AAAI Conferences

Hierarchical classification is a variant of multidimensional classification where the classes are arranged in a hierarchy and the objective is to predict a class, or set of classes, according to a taxonomy. Different alternatives have been proposed for hierarchical classification, including local and global approaches. Local approaches are prone to suffer the inconsistency problem, while the global approaches tend to produce more complex models. In this paper, we propose a hybrid globallocal approach inspired on multidimensional classification. It starts by building a local multi-class classifier per each parent node in the hierarchy. In the classification phase all the local classifiers are applied simultaneously to each instance resulting in a most probable class for each classifier. A set of consistent classes are obtained, according to the hierarchy, based on three novel alternatives. The proposed method was tested on three different hierarchical classification data sets and was compared against state-of-the-art methods, resulting in significantly superior performance to the traditional topdown techniques; with competitive results against more complex top-down classifier selection methods.


Oh

AAAI Conferences

This paper studies a top-k hierarchical classification problem. In top-k classification, one is allowed to make k predictions and no penalty is incurred if at least one of k predictions is correct. In hierarchical classification, classes form a structured hierarchy, and misclassification costs depend on the relation between the correct class and the incorrect class in the hierarchy. Despite that the fact that both top-k classification and hierarchical classification have gained increasing interests, the two problems have always been studied separately. In this paper, we define a top-k hierarchical loss function using a real world application. We provide the Bayes-optimal solution that minimizes the expected top-k hierarchical misclassification cost. Via numerical experiments, we show that our solution outperforms two baseline methods that address only one of the two issues.