Mandatory breaks for truck drivers are nowadays scheduled after the route has been decided. However, in some cases it is beneficial to plan these breaks during waiting time caused by truck driving bans. Optimally planning a single break considering driving bans can be done using Dijkstra’s algorithm with multiple labels. This has large effects on predicted travel times: 17% of the analysed routes having a night rest obtain an earlier arrival time by 5 hours on average. However, the computation times of this algorithm are long. A novel heuristic version of time-dependent contraction hierarchies leads to significant reductions in computation times from several seconds to several milliseconds per route. Experiments show that the solutions are still optimal for a representative test set consisting of 10,000 route queries.
Simple Temporal Networks (STNs) allow minimum and maximum distance constraints between time-points to be represented. They are often used when tackling planning and scheduling problems that involve temporal aspects. This paper is a summary of the journal article "Time-dependent Simple Temporal Networks: Properties and Algorithms" published in RAIRO - Operations Research. This journal article introduces an extension of STN called Time-dependent STN (TSTN), which covers temporal constraints for which the temporal distance required between two time-points is not necessarily constant. Such constraints are useful to model time-dependent scheduling problems, in which the duration of an activity may depend on its starting time. The paper introduces the TSTN framework, its properties, resolution techniques, as well as examples of applications.
Online social networking services allow their users to post content in the form of text, images or videos. The main mechanism driving content diffusion is the possibility for users to re-share the content posted by their social connections, which may then cascade across the system. A fundamental problem when studying information cascades is the possibility to develop sound mathematical models, whose parameters can be calibrated on empirical data, in order to predict the future course of a cascade after a window of observation. In this paper, we focus on Twitter and, in particular, on the temporal patterns of retweet activity for an original tweet. We model the system by Time-Dependent Hawkes process (TiDeH), which properly takes into account the circadian nature of the users and the aging of information. The input of the prediction model are observed retweet times and structural information about the underlying social network. We develop a procedure for parameter optimization and for predicting the future profiles of retweet activity at different time resolutions. We validate our methodology on a large corpus of Twitter data and demonstrate its systematic improvement over existing approaches in all the time regimes.
We discuss representing and reasoning with knowledge about the time-dependent utility of an agent's actions. Time-dependent utility plays a crucial role in the interaction between computation and action under bounded resources. We present a semantics for time-dependent utility and describe the use of time-dependent information in decision contexts. We illustrate our discussion with examples of time-pressured reasoning in Protos, a system constructed to explore the ideal control of inference by reasoners with limit abilities.
In real-world project scheduling applications, activity durations are often uncertain. Proactive scheduling can effectively cope with the duration uncertainties, by generating robust baseline solutions according to a priori stochastic knowledge. However, most of the existing proactive approaches assume that the duration uncertainty of an activity is not related to its scheduled start time, which may not hold in many real-world scenarios. In this paper, we relax this assumption by allowing the duration uncertainty to be time-dependent, which is caused by the uncertainty of whether the activity can be executed on each time slot. We propose a stochastic optimization model to find an optimal Partial-order Schedule (POS) that minimizes the expected makespan. This model can cover both the time-dependent uncertainty studied in this paper and the traditional time-independent duration uncertainty. To circumvent the underlying complexity in evaluating a given solution, we approximate the stochastic optimization model based on Sample Average Approximation (SAA). Finally, we design two efficient branch-and-bound algorithms to solve the NP-hard SAA problem. Empirical evaluation confirms that our approach can generate high-quality proactive solutions for a variety of uncertainty distributions.