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Decision Tree Induction Systems: A Bayesian Analysis

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Decision tree induction systems are being used for knowledge acquisition in noisy domains. This paper develops a subjective Bayesian interpretation of the task tackled by these systems and the heuristic methods they use. It is argued that decision tree systems implicitly incorporate a prior belief that the simpler (in terms of decision tree complexity) of two hypotheses be preferred, all else being equal, and that they perform a greedy search of the space of decision rules to find one in which there is strong posterior belief. A number of improvements to these systems are then suggested.


Semi-autonomous acquisition of pattern-based knowledge

Classics

This paper has three themes: (1) The task of acquiring and organizing the knowledge on which to base an expert system is difficult.(2) Inductive inference systems can be used to extract this knowledge from data.(3) The knowledge so obtained is powerful enough to enable systems using it to compete handily with more conventional algorithm-based systems.These themes are explored in the context of attempts to construct high-performance programs relevant to the chess endgame king-rook versus king-knight.In Hayes, J. E., Michie, D., and Pao, Y.-H. (Eds.), Machine Intelligence 10. Ellis Horwood.


From Digitized Images to Online Catalogs

AI Magazine

For large collections of images, such as those resulting from astronomy sky surveys, the typical useful product is an online database cataloging entries of interest. We focus on the automation of the cataloging effort of a major sky survey and the availability of digital libraries in general. For the primary scientific analysis of these data, it is necessary to detect, measure, and classify every sky object. The learning algorithms are trained to classify the detected objects and can classify objects too faint for visual classification with an accuracy level exceeding 90 percent. This accuracy level increases the number of classified objects in the final catalog threefold relative to the best results from digitized photographic sky surveys to date.


From Digitized Images to Online Catalogs Data Mining a Sky Survey

AI Magazine

The value of scientific digital-image libraries seldom lies in the pixels of images. For large collections of images, such as those resulting from astronomy sky surveys, the typical useful product is an online database cataloging entries of interest. We focus on the automation of the cataloging effort of a major sky survey and the availability of digital libraries in general. The SKICAT system automates the reduction and analysis of the three terabytes worth of images, expected to contain on the order of 2 billion sky objects. For the primary scientific analysis of these data, it is necessary to detect, measure, and classify every sky object. SKICAT integrates techniques for image processing, classification learning, database management, and visualization. The learning algorithms are trained to classify the detected objects and can classify objects too faint for visual classification with an accuracy level exceeding 90 percent. This accuracy level increases the number of classified objects in the final catalog threefold relative to the best results from digitized photographic sky surveys to date. Hence, learning algorithms played a powerful and enabling role and solved a difficult, scientifically significant problem, enabling the consistent, accurate classification and the ease of access and analysis of an otherwise unfathomable data set.


Significance of Classification Techniques in Prediction of Learning Disabilities

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The aim of this study is to show the importance of two classification techniques, viz. decision tree and clustering, in prediction of learning disabilities (LD) of school-age children. LDs affect about 10 percent of all children enrolled in schools. The problems of children with specific learning disabilities have been a cause of concern to parents and teachers for some time. Decision trees and clustering are powerful and popular tools used for classification and prediction in Data mining. Different rules extracted from the decision tree are used for prediction of learning disabilities. Clustering is the assignment of a set of observations into subsets, called clusters, which are useful in finding the different signs and symptoms (attributes) present in the LD affected child. In this paper, J48 algorithm is used for constructing the decision tree and K-means algorithm is used for creating the clusters. By applying these classification techniques, LD in any child can be identified.