Interactive transfer of expertise: Acquisition of new inference rules


Summary of Ph.D. dissertation, Computer Science Dept., Stanford University (1979)."TEIRESIAS is a program designed to provide assistance on the task of building knowledge-based systems. It facilitates the interactive transfer of knowledge from a human expert to the system, in a high level dialog conducted in a restricted subset of natural language. This paper explores an example of TEIRESIAS in operation and demonstrates how it guides the acquisition of new inference rules. The concept of meta-level knowledge is described and illustrations given of its utility in knowledge acquisition and its contribution to the more general issues of creating an intelligent program."Also in:Readings in Artificial Intelligence, ed. Webber, Bonnie Lynn and Nils J. Nilsson, Palo Alto, CA: Tioga Publishing Co., 1981.Orig. in IJCAI-77, vol.1, pp. 321 ff. Preprint in Stanford HPP Report #HPP-77-9.See also: Artificial Intelligence, 12[#2]:409-427. Readings in Artificial Intelligence, ed. Webber, Bonnie Lynn and Nils J. Nilsson, Palo Alto, CA: Tioga Publishing Co., 1981

On Competence and Meta-Knowledge Gerhard Wickler Louise Pryor

AAAI Conferences

Department of Artificial Intelligence University of Edinburgh 80 South Bridge Edinburgh EH1 1HN Scotland {gwllouisep} Abstract In this paper we define and attack the problem of competence assessment for intelligent agents. The basic idea is that we use metaknowledge to infer competence. The main contribution of this paper is a single rule that allows efficient competence assessment for any system with explicit strategic knowledge. The reason for this is that strategic knowledge already contains the right information. Cognitive evidence supports our theory. Competence and Intelligent Agents The Problem of Competence Assessment The problem we attempt to address in this paper is best illustrated by looking at an example. Consider the problem-solving activity of human problem solvers given the following simple physics problem1: A block of mass m starts from rest down a plane of length l inclined at an angle O with the horizontal. If the coefficient of friction between block and plane is #, what is the block's speed as it reaches the bottom of the plane? Given that the human problem solvers have some knowledge of physics in the form of equations that are appropriate to the problem, they will most likely answer the question whether they can solve this problem with "yes", i.e. they will state that they are competent to solve this particular problem instance.

Rule-Based Expert Systems: The MYCIN Experiments of the Stanford Heuristic Programming Project


Artificial intelligence, or AI, is largely an experimental science—at least as much progress has been made by building and analyzing programs as by examining theoretical questions. MYCIN is one of several well-known programs that embody some intelligence and provide data on the extent to which intelligent behavior can be programmed. As with other AI programs, its development was slow and not always in a forward direction. But we feel we learned some useful lessons in the course of nearly a decade of work on MYCIN and related programs. In this book we share the results of many experiments performed in that time, and we try to paint a coherent picture of the work. The book is intended to be a critical analysis of several pieces of related research, performed by a large number of scientists. We believe that the whole field of AI will benefit from such attempts to take a detailed retrospective look at experiments, for in this way the scientific foundations of the field will gradually be defined. It is for all these reasons that we have prepared this analysis of the MYCIN experiments.

The complete book in a single file.

William J. Clancey

AI Magazine

Origins The idea of developing a tutoring program from the MYCIN knowledge base was first described by Ted Shortliffe (1974). In fact, it was the mixed-initiative dialogue of the SCHOLAR teaching program (Carbonell, 1970) that inspired Shortliffe to produce the consultation dialogue of MYCIN. He conceived of it as a question-answer program in SCHOLAR's style, using a semantic network of disease knowledge. Shortly after I joined the MYCIN project in early 1975, Bruce Buchanan and I decided that developing a tutoring program would be my thesis project. The GUIDON program was operational in early 1979.