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Inferential Text Generation with Multiple Knowledge Sources and Meta-Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We study the problem of generating inferential texts of events for a variety of commonsense like \textit{if-else} relations. Existing approaches typically use limited evidence from training examples and learn for each relation individually. In this work, we use multiple knowledge sources as fuels for the model. Existing commonsense knowledge bases like ConceptNet are dominated by taxonomic knowledge (e.g., \textit{isA} and \textit{relatedTo} relations), having a limited number of inferential knowledge. We use not only structured commonsense knowledge bases, but also natural language snippets from search-engine results. These sources are incorporated into a generative base model via key-value memory network. In addition, we introduce a meta-learning based multi-task learning algorithm. For each targeted commonsense relation, we regard the learning of examples from other relations as the meta-training process, and the evaluation on examples from the targeted relation as the meta-test process. We conduct experiments on Event2Mind and ATOMIC datasets. Results show that both the integration of multiple knowledge sources and the use of the meta-learning algorithm improve the performance.


DISCOS: Bridging the Gap between Discourse Knowledge and Commonsense Knowledge

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Commonsense knowledge is crucial for artificial intelligence systems to understand natural language. Previous commonsense knowledge acquisition approaches typically rely on human annotations (e.g., ATOMIC) or text generation models (e.g., COMET). Human annotation could provide high-quality commonsense knowledge, yet its high cost often results in relatively small scale and low coverage. On the other hand, generation models have the potential to automatically generate more knowledge. Nonetheless, machine learning models often fit the training data too well to generate novel knowledge in high quality, thus still suffering from coverage problems. To address the limitations of previous approaches, in this paper, we propose an alternative commonsense knowledge acquisition framework DISCOS (from DIScourse to COmmonSense), which automatically mines expensive complex commonsense knowledge from more affordable linguistic knowledge resources. Experiments demonstrate that we can successfully convert discourse knowledge over eventualities from ASER, a large-scale discourse knowledge graph, into inferential if-then commonsense knowledge defined in ATOMIC without any additional annotation effort. Further study suggests that DISCOS significantly outperforms previous supervised approaches in terms of novelty and diversity with comparable quality. In total, we can acquire 3.4M ATOMIC-like inferential commonsense knowledge by populating ATOMIC on the core part of ASER. Codes and data are available at https://github.com/HKUST-KnowComp/DISCOS-commonsense.


Identify, Align, and Integrate: Matching Knowledge Graphs to Commonsense Reasoning Tasks

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Integrating external knowledge into commonsense reasoning tasks has shown progress in resolving some, but not all, knowledge gaps in these tasks. For knowledge integration to yield peak performance, it is critical to select a knowledge graph (KG) that is well-aligned with the given task's objective. We present an approach to assess how well a candidate KG can correctly identify and accurately fill in gaps of reasoning for a task, which we call KG-to-task match. We show this KG-to-task match in 3 phases: knowledge-task identification, knowledge-task alignment, and knowledge-task integration. We also analyze our transformer-based KG-to-task models via commonsense probes to measure how much knowledge is captured in these models before and after KG integration. Empirically, we investigate KG matches for the SocialIQA (SIQA) (Sap et al., 2019b), Physical IQA (PIQA) (Bisk et al., 2020), and MCScript2.0 (Ostermann et al., 2019) datasets with 3 diverse KGs: ATOMIC (Sap et al., 2019a), ConceptNet (Speer et al., 2017), and an automatically constructed instructional KG based on WikiHow (Koupaee and Wang, 2018). With our methods we are able to demonstrate that ATOMIC, an event-inference focused KG, is the best match for SIQA and MCScript2.0, and that the taxonomic ConceptNet and WikiHow-based KGs are the best matches for PIQA across all 3 analysis phases. We verify our methods and findings with human evaluation.


COMET: Commonsense Transformers for Automatic Knowledge Graph Construction

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We present the first comprehensive study on automatic knowledge base construction for two prevalent commonsense knowledge graphs: ATOMIC (Sap et al., 2019) and ConceptNet (Speer et al., 2017). Contrary to many conventional KBs that store knowledge with canonical templates, commonsense KBs only store loosely structured open-text descriptions of knowledge. We posit that an important step toward automatic commonsense completion is the development of generative models of commonsense knowledge, and propose COMmonsEnse Transformers (COMET) that learn to generate rich and diverse commonsense descriptions in natural language. Despite the challenges of commonsense modeling, our investigation reveals promising results when implicit knowledge from deep pre-trained language models is transferred to generate explicit knowledge in commonsense knowledge graphs. Empirical results demonstrate that COMET is able to generate novel knowledge that humans rate as high quality, with up to 77.5% (ATOMIC) and 91.7% (ConceptNet) precision at top 1, which approaches human performance for these resources. Our findings suggest that using generative commonsense models for automatic commonsense KB completion could soon be a plausible alternative to extractive methods.


Commonsense Knowledge Graph Reasoning by Selection or Generation? Why?

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Commonsense knowledge graph reasoning(CKGR) is the task of predicting a missing entity given one existing and the relation in a commonsense knowledge graph (CKG). Existing methods can be classified into two categories generation method and selection method. Each method has its own advantage. We theoretically and empirically compare the two methods, finding the selection method is more suitable than the generation method in CKGR. Given the observation, we further combine the structure of neural Text Encoder and Knowledge Graph Embedding models to solve the selection method's two problems, achieving competitive results. We provide a basic framework and baseline model for subsequent CKGR tasks by selection methods.