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Restricted Boltzmann Machines for Robust and Fast Latent Truth Discovery

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We address the problem of latent truth discovery, LTD for short, where the goal is to discover the underlying true values of entity attributes in the presence of noisy, conflicting or incomplete information. Despite a multitude of algorithms to address the LTD problem that can be found in literature, only little is known about their overall performance with respect to effectiveness (in terms of truth discovery capabilities), efficiency and robustness. A practical LTD approach should satisfy all these characteristics so that it can be applied to heterogeneous datasets of varying quality and degrees of cleanliness. We propose a novel algorithm for LTD that satisfies the above requirements. The proposed model is based on Restricted Boltzmann Machines, thus coined LTD-RBM. In extensive experiments on various heterogeneous and publicly available datasets, LTD-RBM is superior to state-of-the-art LTD techniques in terms of an overall consideration of effectiveness, efficiency and robustness.


Open Knowledge Enrichment for Long-tail Entities

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Knowledge bases (KBs) have gradually become a valuable asset for many AI applications. While many current KBs are quite large, they are widely acknowledged as incomplete, especially lacking facts of long-tail entities, e.g., less famous persons. Existing approaches enrich KBs mainly on completing missing links or filling missing values. However, they only tackle a part of the enrichment problem and lack specific considerations regarding long-tail entities. In this paper, we propose a full-fledged approach to knowledge enrichment, which predicts missing properties and infers true facts of long-tail entities from the open Web. Prior knowledge from popular entities is leveraged to improve every enrichment step. Our experiments on the synthetic and real-world datasets and comparison with related work demonstrate the feasibility and superiority of the approach.


OpinionRank: Extracting Ground Truth Labels from Unreliable Expert Opinions with Graph-Based Spectral Ranking

arXiv.org Machine Learning

As larger and more comprehensive datasets become standard in contemporary machine learning, it becomes increasingly more difficult to obtain reliable, trustworthy label information with which to train sophisticated models. To address this problem, crowdsourcing has emerged as a popular, inexpensive, and efficient data mining solution for performing distributed label collection. However, crowdsourced annotations are inherently untrustworthy, as the labels are provided by anonymous volunteers who may have varying, unreliable expertise. Worse yet, some participants on commonly used platforms such as Amazon Mechanical Turk may be adversarial, and provide intentionally incorrect label information without the end user's knowledge. We discuss three conventional models of the label generation process, describing their parameterizations and the model-based approaches used to solve them. We then propose OpinionRank, a model-free, interpretable, graph-based spectral algorithm for integrating crowdsourced annotations into reliable labels for performing supervised or semi-supervised learning. Our experiments show that OpinionRank performs favorably when compared against more highly parameterized algorithms. We also show that OpinionRank is scalable to very large datasets and numbers of label sources, and requires considerably fewer computational resources than previous approaches.


Deep Learning from Crowds

AAAI Conferences

Over the last few years, deep learning has revolutionized the field of machine learning by dramatically improving the state-of-the-art in various domains. However, as the size of supervised artificial neural networks grows, typically so does the need for larger labeled datasets. Recently, crowdsourcing has established itself as an efficient and cost-effective solution for labeling large sets of data in a scalable manner, but it often requires aggregating labels from multiple noisy contributors with different levels of expertise. In this paper, we address the problem of learning deep neural networks from crowds. We begin by describing an EM algorithm for jointly learning the parameters of the network and the reliabilities of the annotators. Then, a novel general-purpose crowd layer is proposed, which allows us to train deep neural networks end-to-end, directly from the noisy labels of multiple annotators, using only backpropagation. We empirically show that the proposed approach is able to internally capture the reliability and biases of different annotators and achieve new state-of-the-art results for various crowdsourced datasets across different settings, namely classification, regression and sequence labeling.


Statistical Latent Space Approach for Mixed Data Modelling and Applications

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The analysis of mixed data has been raising challenges in statistics and machine learning. One of two most prominent challenges is to develop new statistical techniques and methodologies to effectively handle mixed data by making the data less heterogeneous with minimum loss of information. The other challenge is that such methods must be able to apply in large-scale tasks when dealing with huge amount of mixed data. To tackle these challenges, we introduce parameter sharing and balancing extensions to our recent model, the mixed-variate restricted Boltzmann machine (MV.RBM) which can transform heterogeneous data into homogeneous representation. We also integrate structured sparsity and distance metric learning into RBM-based models. Our proposed methods are applied in various applications including latent patient profile modelling in medical data analysis and representation learning for image retrieval. The experimental results demonstrate the models perform better than baseline methods in medical data and outperform state-of-the-art rivals in image dataset.