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From a Point Cloud to a Simulation Model: Bayesian Segmentation and Entropy based Uncertainty Estimation for 3D Modelling

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The 3D modelling of indoor environments and the generation of process simulations play an important role in factory and assembly planning. In brownfield planning cases existing data are often outdated and incomplete especially for older plants, which were mostly planned in 2D. Thus, current environment models cannot be generated directly on the basis of existing data and a holistic approach on how to build such a factory model in a highly automated fashion is mostly non-existent. Major steps in generating an environment model in a production plant include data collection and pre-processing, object identification as well as pose estimation. In this work, we elaborate a methodical workflow, which starts with the digitalization of large-scale indoor environments and ends with the generation of a static environment or simulation model. The object identification step is realized using a Bayesian neural network capable of point cloud segmentation. We elaborate how the information on network uncertainty generated by a Bayesian segmentation framework can be used in order to build up a more accurate environment model. The steps of data collection and point cloud segmentation as well as the resulting model accuracy are evaluated on a real-world data set collected at the assembly line of a large-scale automotive production plant. The segmentation network is further evaluated on the publicly available Stanford Large-Scale 3D Indoor Spaces data set. The Bayesian segmentation network clearly surpasses the performance of the frequentist baseline and allows us to increase the accuracy of the model placement in a simulation scene considerably.


DropConnect Is Effective in Modeling Uncertainty of Bayesian Deep Networks

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Deep neural networks (DNNs) have achieved state-of-the-art performances in many important domains, including medical diagnosis, security, and autonomous driving. In these domains where safety is highly critical, an erroneous decision can result in serious consequences. While a perfect prediction accuracy is not always achievable, recent work on Bayesian deep networks shows that it is possible to know when DNNs are more likely to make mistakes. Knowing what DNNs do not know is desirable to increase the safety of deep learning technology in sensitive applications. Bayesian neural networks attempt to address this challenge. However, traditional approaches are computationally intractable and do not scale well to large, complex neural network architectures. In this paper, we develop a theoretical framework to approximate Bayesian inference for DNNs by imposing a Bernoulli distribution on the model weights. This method, called MC-DropConnect, gives us a tool to represent the model uncertainty with little change in the overall model structure or computational cost. We extensively validate the proposed algorithm on multiple network architectures and datasets for classification and semantic segmentation tasks. We also propose new metrics to quantify the uncertainty estimates. This enables an objective comparison between MC-DropConnect and prior approaches. Our empirical results demonstrate that the proposed framework yields significant improvement in both prediction accuracy and uncertainty estimation quality compared to the state of the art.


Integrating uncertainty in deep neural networks for MRI based stroke analysis

arXiv.org Machine Learning

At present, the majority of the proposed Deep Learning (DL) methods provide point predictions without quantifying the models uncertainty. However, a quantification of the reliability of automated image analysis is essential, in particular in medicine when physicians rely on the results for making critical treatment decisions. In this work, we provide an entire framework to diagnose ischemic stroke patients incorporating Bayesian uncertainty into the analysis procedure. We present a Bayesian Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) yielding a probability for a stroke lesion on 2D Magnetic Resonance (MR) images with corresponding uncertainty information about the reliability of the prediction. For patient-level diagnoses, different aggregation methods are proposed and evaluated, which combine the single image-level predictions. Those methods take advantage of the uncertainty in image predictions and report model uncertainty at the patient-level. In a cohort of 511 patients, our Bayesian CNN achieved an accuracy of 95.33% at the image-level representing a significant improvement of 2% over a non-Bayesian counterpart. The best patient aggregation method yielded 95.89% of accuracy. Integrating uncertainty information about image predictions in aggregation models resulted in higher uncertainty measures to false patient classifications, which enabled to filter critical patient diagnoses that are supposed to be closer examined by a medical doctor. We therefore recommend using Bayesian approaches not only for improved image-level prediction and uncertainty estimation but also for the detection of uncertain aggregations at the patient-level.


A Review of Uncertainty Quantification in Deep Learning: Techniques, Applications and Challenges

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Uncertainty quantification (UQ) plays a pivotal role in reduction of uncertainties during both optimization and decision making processes. It can be applied to solve a variety of real-world applications in science and engineering. Bayesian approximation and ensemble learning techniques are two most widely-used UQ methods in the literature. In this regard, researchers have proposed different UQ methods and examined their performance in a variety of applications such as computer vision (e.g., self-driving cars and object detection), image processing (e.g., image restoration), medical image analysis (e.g., medical image classification and segmentation), natural language processing (e.g., text classification, social media texts and recidivism risk-scoring), bioinformatics, etc.This study reviews recent advances in UQ methods used in deep learning. Moreover, we also investigate the application of these methods in reinforcement learning (RL). Then, we outline a few important applications of UQ methods. Finally, we briefly highlight the fundamental research challenges faced by UQ methods and discuss the future research directions in this field.


A Comparison of Uncertainty Estimation Approaches in Deep Learning Components for Autonomous Vehicle Applications

arXiv.org Machine Learning

A key factor for ensuring safety in Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) is to avoid any abnormal behaviors under undesirable and unpredicted circumstances. As AVs increasingly rely on Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) to perform safety-critical tasks, different methods for uncertainty quantification have recently been proposed to measure the inevitable source of errors in data and models. However, uncertainty quantification in DNNs is still a challenging task. These methods require a higher computational load, a higher memory footprint, and introduce extra latency, which can be prohibitive in safety-critical applications. In this paper, we provide a brief and comparative survey of methods for uncertainty quantification in DNNs along with existing metrics to evaluate uncertainty predictions. We are particularly interested in understanding the advantages and downsides of each method for specific AV tasks and types of uncertainty sources.