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Weakly-Supervised Hierarchical Text Classification

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Hierarchical text classification, which aims to classify text documents into a given hierarchy, is an important task in many real-world applications. Recently, deep neural models are gaining increasing popularity for text classification due to their expressive power and minimum requirement for feature engineering. However, applying deep neural networks for hierarchical text classification remains challenging, because they heavily rely on a large amount of training data and meanwhile cannot easily determine appropriate levels of documents in the hierarchical setting. In this paper, we propose a weakly-supervised neural method for hierarchical text classification. Our method does not require a large amount of training data but requires only easy-to-provide weak supervision signals such as a few class-related documents or keywords. Our method effectively leverages such weak supervision signals to generate pseudo documents for model pre-training, and then performs self-training on real unlabeled data to iteratively refine the model. During the training process, our model features a hierarchical neural structure, which mimics the given hierarchy and is capable of determining the proper levels for documents with a blocking mechanism. Experiments on three datasets from different domains demonstrate the efficacy of our method compared with a comprehensive set of baselines.


Weakly-Supervised Neural Text Classification

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Deep neural networks are gaining increasing popularity for the classic text classification task, due to their strong expressive power and less requirement for feature engineering. Despite such attractiveness, neural text classification models suffer from the lack of training data in many real-world applications. Although many semi-supervised and weakly-supervised text classification models exist, they cannot be easily applied to deep neural models and meanwhile support limited supervision types. In this paper, we propose a weakly-supervised method that addresses the lack of training data in neural text classification. Our method consists of two modules: (1) a pseudo-document generator that leverages seed information to generate pseudo-labeled documents for model pre-training, and (2) a self-training module that bootstraps on real unlabeled data for model refinement. Our method has the flexibility to handle different types of weak supervision and can be easily integrated into existing deep neural models for text classification. We have performed extensive experiments on three real-world datasets from different domains. The results demonstrate that our proposed method achieves inspiring performance without requiring excessive training data and outperforms baseline methods significantly.


Repo2Vec: A Comprehensive Embedding Approach for Determining Repository Similarity

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

How can we identify similar repositories and clusters among a large online archive, such as GitHub? Determiningrepository similarity is an essential building block in studying the dynamics and the evolution of such software ecosystems. The key challenge is to determine the right representation for the diverse repository features in a way that: (a) it captures all aspects of the available information, and (b) it is readily usable by MLalgorithms. We propose Repo2Vec, a comprehensive embedding approach to represent a repository as a distributed vector by combining features from three types of information sources. As our key novelty, we consider three types of information: (a)metadata, (b) the structure of the repository, and (c) the source code. We also introduce a series of embedding approaches to represent and combine these information types into a single embedding. We evaluate our method with two real datasets from GitHub for a combined 1013 repositories. First, we show that our method outperforms previous methods in terms of precision (93%vs 78%), with nearly twice as many Strongly Similar repositories and 30% fewer False Positives. Second, we show how Repo2Vecprovides a solid basis for: (a) distinguishing between malware and benign repositories, and (b) identifying a meaningful hierarchical clustering. For example, we achieve 98% precision and 96%recall in distinguishing malware and benign repositories. Overall, our work is a fundamental building block for enabling many repository analysis functions such as repository categorization by target platform or intention, detecting code-reuse and clones, and identifying lineage and evolution.


On Dataless Hierarchical Text Classification

AAAI Conferences

In this paper, we systematically study the problem of dataless hierarchical text classification. Unlike standard text classification schemes that rely on supervised training, dataless classification depends on understanding the labels of the sought after categories and requires no labeled data. Given a collection of text documents and a set of labels, we show that understanding the labels can be used to accurately categorize the documents. This is done by embedding both labels and documents in a semantic space that allows one to compute meaningful semantic similarity between a document and a potential label. We show that this scheme can be used to support accurate multiclass classification without any supervision. We study several semantic representations and show how to improve the classification using bootstrapping. Our results show that bootstrapped dataless classification is competitive with supervised classification with thousands of labeled examples.


Weakly Supervised Prototype Topic Model with Discriminative Seed Words: Modifying the Category Prior by Self-exploring Supervised Signals

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Dataless text classification, i.e., a new paradigm of weakly supervised learning, refers to the task of learning with unlabeled documents and a few predefined representative words of categories, known as seed words. The recent generative dataless methods construct document-specific category priors by using seed word occurrences only, however, such category priors often contain very limited and even noisy supervised signals. To remedy this problem, in this paper we propose a novel formulation of category prior. First, for each document, we consider its label membership degree by not only counting seed word occurrences, but also using a novel prototype scheme, which captures pseudo-nearest neighboring categories. Second, for each label, we consider its frequency prior knowledge of the corpus, which is also a discriminative knowledge for classification. By incorporating the proposed category prior into the previous generative dataless method, we suggest a novel generative dataless method, namely Weakly Supervised Prototype Topic Model (WSPTM). The experimental results on real-world datasets demonstrate that WSPTM outperforms the existing baseline methods.