The recent successes of AI have captured the wildest imagination of both the scientific communities and the general public. Robotics and AI amplify human potentials, increase productivity and are moving from simple reasoning towards human-like cognitive abilities. Current AI technologies are used in a set area of applications, ranging from healthcare, manufacturing, transport, energy, to financial services, banking, advertising, management consulting and government agencies. The global AI market is around 260 billion USD in 2016 and it is estimated to exceed 3 trillion by 2024. To understand the impact of AI, it is important to draw lessons from it's past successes and failures and this white paper provides a comprehensive explanation of the evolution of AI, its current status and future directions.
To address modeling problems of brain-inspired intelligence, this thesis is focused on researching in the semantic-oriented framework design for image, audio, language and video. The Multimedia Neural Cognitive Computing (MNCC) model was designed based on the nervous mechanism and cognitive architecture. Furthermore, the semantic-oriented hierarchical Cross-media Neural Cognitive Computing (CNCC) framework was proposed based on MNCC, and formal description and analysis for CNCC was given. It would effectively improve the performance of semantic processing for multimedia information, and has far-reaching significance for exploration and realization brain-inspired computing.
Through the developmental process, they acquire basic physical skills (such as reaching and grasping), perceptional skills (such as object recognition and phoneme recognition), and social skills (such as linguistic communication and intention estimation) (Taniguchi et al., 2018). This open-ended online learning process involving many types of modalities, tasks, and interactions is often referred to as lifelong learning (Oudeyer et al., 2007; Parisi et al., 2019). The central question in next-generation artificial intelligence (AI) and developmental robotics is how to build an integrative cognitive system that is capable of lifelong learning and humanlike behavior in environments such as homes, offices, and outdoor. In this paper, inspired by the human whole brain architecture (WBA) approach, we introduce the idea of building an integrative cognitive system using a whole brain probabilistic generative model (WB-PGM) (see 2.1). The integrative cognitive system can alternatively be referred to as artificial general intelligence (AGI) (Yamakawa, 2021). Against this backdrop, we explore the process of establishing a cognitive architecture for developmental robots. Cognitive architecture is a hypothesis about the mechanisms of human intelligence underlying our behaviors (Rosenbloom, 2011). The study of cognitive architecture involves developing a presumably standard model of the humanlike mind (Laird et al., 2017).
In this paper we present a broad overview of the last 40 years of research on cognitive architectures. Although the number of existing architectures is nearing several hundred, most of the existing surveys do not reflect this growth and focus on a handful of well-established architectures. Thus, in this survey we wanted to shift the focus towards a more inclusive and high-level overview of the research on cognitive architectures. Our final set of 84 architectures includes 49 that are still actively developed, and borrow from a diverse set of disciplines, spanning areas from psychoanalysis to neuroscience. To keep the length of this paper within reasonable limits we discuss only the core cognitive abilities, such as perception, attention mechanisms, action selection, memory, learning and reasoning. In order to assess the breadth of practical applications of cognitive architectures we gathered information on over 900 practical projects implemented using the cognitive architectures in our list. We use various visualization techniques to highlight overall trends in the development of the field. In addition to summarizing the current state-of-the-art in the cognitive architecture research, this survey describes a variety of methods and ideas that have been tried and their relative success in modeling human cognitive abilities, as well as which aspects of cognitive behavior need more research with respect to their mechanistic counterparts and thus can further inform how cognitive science might progress.
This paper summarizes some of the technical background, research ideas, and possible development strategies for achieving machine common sense. Machine common sense has long been a critical-but-missing component of Artificial Intelligence (AI). Recent advances in machine learning have resulted in new AI capabilities, but in all of these applications, machine reasoning is narrow and highly specialized. Developers must carefully train or program systems for every situation. General commonsense reasoning remains elusive. The absence of common sense prevents intelligent systems from understanding their world, behaving reasonably in unforeseen situations, communicating naturally with people, and learning from new experiences. Its absence is perhaps the most significant barrier between the narrowly focused AI applications we have today and the more general, human-like AI systems we would like to build in the future. Machine common sense remains a broad, potentially unbounded problem in AI. There are a wide range of strategies that could be employed to make progress on this difficult challenge. This paper discusses two diverse strategies for focusing development on two different machine commonsense services: (1) a service that learns from experience, like a child, to construct computational models that mimic the core domains of child cognition for objects (intuitive physics), agents (intentional actors), and places (spatial navigation); and (2) service that learns from reading the Web, like a research librarian, to construct a commonsense knowledge repository capable of answering natural language and image-based questions about commonsense phenomena.