Balažević, Ivana, Allen, Carl, Hospedales, Timothy

Hyperbolic embeddings have recently gained attention in machine learning due to their ability to represent hierarchical data more accurately and succinctly than their Euclidean analogues. However, multi-relational knowledge graphs often exhibit multiple simultaneous hierarchies, which current hyperbolic models do not capture. To address this, we propose a model that embeds multi-relational graph data in the Poincar\'e ball model of hyperbolic space. Our Multi-Relational Poincar\'e model (MuRP) learns relation-specific parameters to transform entity embeddings by M\"obius matrix-vector multiplication and M\"obius addition. Experiments on the hierarchical WN18RR knowledge graph show that our multi-relational Poincar\'e embeddings outperform their Euclidean counterpart and existing embedding methods on the link prediction task, particularly at lower dimensionality.

Nickel, Maximilian, Kiela, Douwe

Representation learning has become an invaluable approach for learning from symbolic data such as text and graphs. However, while complex symbolic datasets often exhibit a latent hierarchical structure, state-of-the-art methods typically learn embeddings in Euclidean vector spaces, which do not account for this property. For this purpose, we introduce a new approach for learning hierarchical representations of symbolic data by embedding them into hyperbolic space -- or more precisely into an n-dimensional Poincar\'e ball. Due to the underlying hyperbolic geometry, this allows us to learn parsimonious representations of symbolic data by simultaneously capturing hierarchy and similarity. We introduce an efficient algorithm to learn the embeddings based on Riemannian optimization and show experimentally that Poincar\'e embeddings outperform Euclidean embeddings significantly on data with latent hierarchies, both in terms of representation capacity and in terms of generalization ability.

Nickel, Maximillian, Kiela, Douwe

Representation learning has become an invaluable approach for learning from symbolic data such as text and graphs. However, state-of-the-art embedding methods typically do not account for latent hierarchical structures which are characteristic for many complex symbolic datasets. In this work, we introduce a new approach for learning hierarchical representations of symbolic data by embedding them into hyperbolic space -- or more precisely into an n-dimensional Poincaré ball. Due to the underlying hyperbolic geometry, this allows us to learn parsimonious representations of symbolic data by simultaneously capturing hierarchy and similarity. We present an efficient algorithm to learn the embeddings based on Riemannian optimization and show experimentally that Poincaré embeddings can outperform Euclidean embeddings significantly on data with latent hierarchies, both in terms of representation capacity and in terms of generalization ability.

Chami, Ines, Ying, Rex, Ré, Christopher, Leskovec, Jure

Graph convolutional neural networks (GCNs) embed nodes in a graph into Euclidean space, which has been shown to incur a large distortion when embedding real-world graphs with scale-free or hierarchical structure. Hyperbolic geometry offers an exciting alternative, as it enables embeddings with much smaller distortion. However, extending GCNs to hyperbolic geometry presents several unique challenges because it is not clear how to define neural network operations, such as feature transformation and aggregation, in hyperbolic space. Furthermore, since input features are often Euclidean, it is unclear how to transform the features into hyperbolic embeddings with the right amount of curvature. Here we propose Hyperbolic Graph Convolutional Neural Network (HGCN), the first inductive hyperbolic GCN that leverages both the expressiveness of GCNs and hyperbolic geometry to learn inductive node representations for hierarchical and scale-free graphs. We derive GCN operations in the hyperboloid model of hyperbolic space and map Euclidean input features to embeddings in hyperbolic spaces with different trainable curvature at each layer. Experiments demonstrate that HGCN learns embeddings that preserve hierarchical structure, and leads to improved performance when compared to Euclidean analogs, even with very low dimensional embeddings: compared to state-of-the-art GCNs, HGCN achieves an error reduction of up to 63.1% in ROC AUC for link prediction and of up to 47.5% in F1 score for node classification, also improving state-of-the art on the Pubmed dataset.

Ganea, Octavian, Becigneul, Gary, Hofmann, Thomas

Hyperbolic spaces have recently gained momentum in the context of machine learning due to their high capacity and tree-likeliness properties. However, the representational power of hyperbolic geometry is not yet on par with Euclidean geometry, firstly because of the absence of corresponding hyperbolic neural network layers. Here, we bridge this gap in a principled manner by combining the formalism of Möbius gyrovector spaces with the Riemannian geometry of the Poincaré model of hyperbolic spaces. As a result, we derive hyperbolic versions of important deep learning tools: multinomial logistic regression, feed-forward and recurrent neural networks. This allows to embed sequential data and perform classification in the hyperbolic space. Empirically, we show that, even if hyperbolic optimization tools are limited, hyperbolic sentence embeddings either outperform or are on par with their Euclidean variants on textual entailment and noisy-prefix recognition tasks.