During the past decade, several areas of speech and language understanding have witnessed substantial breakthroughs from the use of data-driven models. In the area of dialogue systems, the trend is less obvious, and most practical systems are still built through significant engineering and expert knowledge. Nevertheless, several recent results suggest that data-driven approaches are feasible and quite promising. To facilitate research in this area, we have carried out a wide survey of publicly available datasets suitable for data-driven learning of dialogue systems. We discuss important characteristics of these datasets, how they can be used to learn diverse dialogue strategies, and their other potential uses. We also examine methods for transfer learning between datasets and the use of external knowledge. Finally, we discuss appropriate choice of evaluation metrics for the learning objective.
Computers have been used to analyze and create music since they were first introduced in the 1950s and 1960s. Beginning in the late 1990s, the rise of the Internet and large scale platforms for music recommendation and retrieval have made music an increasingly prevalent domain of machine learning and artificial intelligence research. While still nascent, several different approaches have been employed to tackle what may broadly be referred to as "musical intelligence." This article provides a definition of musical intelligence, introduces a taxonomy of its constituent components, and surveys the wide range of AI methods that can be, and have been, brought to bear in its pursuit, with a particular emphasis on machine learning methods.
Its impact is drastic and real: Youtube's AIdriven recommendation system would present sports videos for days if one happens to watch a live baseball game on the platform ; email writing becomes much faster with machine learning (ML) based auto-completion ; many businesses have adopted natural language processing based chatbots as part of their customer services . AI has also greatly advanced human capabilities in complex decision-making processes ranging from determining how to allocate security resources to protect airports  to games such as poker  and Go . All such tangible and stunning progress suggests that an "AI summer" is happening. As some put it, "AI is the new electricity" . Meanwhile, in the past decade, an emerging theme in the AI research community is the so-called "AI for social good" (AI4SG): researchers aim at developing AI methods and tools to address problems at the societal level and improve the wellbeing of the society.
With rise of digital age, there is an explosion of information in the form of news, articles, social media, and so on. Much of this data lies in unstructured form and manually managing and effectively making use of it is tedious, boring and labor intensive. This explosion of information and need for more sophisticated and efficient information handling tools gives rise to Information Extraction(IE) and Information Retrieval(IR) technology. Information Extraction systems takes natural language text as input and produces structured information specified by certain criteria, that is relevant to a particular application. Various sub-tasks of IE such as Named Entity Recognition, Coreference Resolution, Named Entity Linking, Relation Extraction, Knowledge Base reasoning forms the building blocks of various high end Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks such as Machine Translation, Question-Answering System, Natural Language Understanding, Text Summarization and Digital Assistants like Siri, Cortana and Google Now. This paper introduces Information Extraction technology, its various sub-tasks, highlights state-of-the-art research in various IE subtasks, current challenges and future research directions.