Financial time series forecasting is, without a doubt, the top choice of computational intelligence for finance researchers from both academia and financial industry due to its broad implementation areas and substantial impact. Machine Learning (ML) researchers came up with various models and a vast number of studies have been published accordingly. As such, a significant amount of surveys exist covering ML for financial time series forecasting studies. Lately, Deep Learning (DL) models started appearing within the field, with results that significantly outperform traditional ML counterparts. Even though there is a growing interest in developing models for financial time series forecasting research, there is a lack of review papers that were solely focused on DL for finance. Hence, our motivation in this paper is to provide a comprehensive literature review on DL studies for financial time series forecasting implementations. We not only categorized the studies according to their intended forecasting implementation areas, such as index, forex, commodity forecasting, but also grouped them based on their DL model choices, such as Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), Deep Belief Networks (DBNs), Long-Short Term Memory (LSTM). We also tried to envision the future for the field by highlighting the possible setbacks and opportunities, so the interested researchers can benefit.
School of the Built Environment, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, OX3 0BP, UK. Abstract: This paper provides the state of the art of data science in economics. Through a novel taxonomy of applications and methods advances in data science are investigated. The data science advances are investigated in three individual classes of deep learning models, ensemble models, and hybrid models. Application domains include stock market, marketing, E-commerce, corporate banking, and cryptocurrency. Prisma method, a systematic literature review methodology is used to ensure the quality of the survey. The findings revealed that the trends are on advancement of hybrid models as more than 51% of the reviewed articles applied hybrid model. On the other hand, it is found that based on the RMSE accuracy metric, hybrid models had higher prediction accuracy than other algorithms. While it is expected the trends go toward the advancements of deep learning models. LSDL Large-Scale Deep Learning LSTM Long Short-Term Memory LWDNN List-Wise Deep Neural Network MACN Multi-Agent Collaborated Network MB-LSTM Multivariate Bidirectional LSTM MDNN Multilayer Deep Neural Network MFNN Multi-Filters Neural Network MLP Multiple Layer Perceptron MLP Multi-Layer Perceptron NNRE Neural Network Regression Ensemble O-LSRM Optimal Long Short-Term Memory PCA Principal Component Analysis pSVM Proportion Support Vector Machines RBFNN Radial Basis Function Neural Network RBM Restricted Boltzmann Machine REP Reduced Error Pruning RF Random Forest RFR Random Forest Regression RNN Recurrent Neural Network SAE Stacked Autoencoders SLR Stepwise Linear Regressions SN-CFM Similarity, Neighborhood-Based Collaborative Filtering Model STI Stock Technical Indicators SVM Support Vector Machine SVR Support Vector Regression SVRE Support Vector Regression Ensemble, TDFA Time-Driven Feature-Aware TS-GRU Two-Stream GRU WA Wavelet Analysis WT Wavelet Transforms 1. Introduction Application of data science in different disciplines is exponentially increasing. Because data science has had tremendous progresses in analysis and use of data. Like other disciplines, economics has benefited from the advancements of data science. Advancements of data science in economics have been progressive and have recorded promising results in the literature.
Even though computational intelligence techniques have been extensively utilized in financial trading systems, almost all developed models use the time series data for price prediction or identifying buy-sell points. However, in this study we decided to use 2-D stock bar chart images directly without introducing any additional time series associated with the underlying stock. We propose a novel algorithmic trading model CNN-BI (Convolutional Neural Network with Bar Images) using a 2-D Convolutional Neural Network. We generated 2-D images of sliding windows of 30-day bar charts for Dow 30 stocks and trained a deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model for our algorithmic trading model. We tested our model separately between 2007-2012 and 2012-2017 for representing different market conditions. The results indicate that the model was able to outperform Buy and Hold strategy, especially in trendless or bear markets. Since this is a preliminary study and probably one of the first attempts using such an unconventional approach, there is always potential for improvement. Overall, the results are promising and the model might be integrated as part of an ensemble trading model combined with different strategies.
This thesis uses deep learning algorithms to forecast financial data. The deep learning framework is used to train a neural network. The deep neural network is a Deep Belief Network (DBN) coupled to a Multilayer Perceptron (MLP). It is used to choose stocks to form portfolios. The portfolios have better returns than the median of the stocks forming the list. The stocks forming the S&P 500 are included in the study. The results obtained from the deep neural network are compared to benchmarks from a logistic regression network, a multilayer perceptron and a naive benchmark. The results obtained from the deep neural network are better and more stable than the benchmarks. The findings support that deep learning methods will find their way in finance due to their reliability and good performance.
Stock price prediction is a rich research topic that has attracted interest from various areas of science. The recent success of machine learning in speech and image recognition has prompted researchers to apply these methods to asset price prediction. The majority of literature has been devoted to predicting either the actual asset price or the direction of price movement. In this paper, we study a hitherto little explored question of predicting significant changes in stock price based on previous changes using machine learning algorithms. We are particularly interested in the performance of neural network classifiers in the given context. To this end, we construct and test three neural network models including multi-layer perceptron, convolutional net, and long short term memory net. As benchmark models we use random forest and relative strength index methods. The models are tested using 10-year daily stock price data of four major US public companies. Test results show that predicting significant changes in stock price can be accomplished with a high degree of accuracy. In particular, we obtain substantially better results than similar studies that forecast the direction of price change.