Many neurons in the brain, such as place cells in the rodent hippocampus, have localized receptive fields, i.e., they respond to a small neighborhood of stimulus space. What is the functional significance of such representations and how can they arise? Here, we propose that localized receptive fields emerge in similarity-preserving networks of rectifying neurons that learn low-dimensional manifolds populated by sensory inputs. Numerical simulations of such networks on standard datasets yield manifold-tiling localized receptive fields. More generally, we show analytically that, for data lying on symmetric manifolds, optimal solutions of objectives, from which similarity-preserving networks are derived, have localized receptive fields. Therefore, nonnegative similarity-preserving mapping (NSM) implemented by neural networks can model representations of continuous manifolds in the brain.
The quality of a graph is determined jointly by three key factors of the graph: nodes, edges and similarity measure (or edge weights), and is very crucial to the success of graph-based semi-supervised learning (SSL) approaches. Recently, dynamic graph, which means part/all its factors are dynamically updated during the training process, has demonstrated to be promising for graph-based semi-supervised learning. However, existing approaches only update part of the three factors and keep the rest manually specified during the learning stage. In this paper, we propose a novel graph-based semi-supervised learning approach to optimize all three factors simultaneously in an end-to-end learning fashion. To this end, we concatenate two neural networks (feature network and similarity network) together to learn the categorical label and semantic similarity, respectively, and train the networks to minimize a unified SSL objective function. We also introduce an extended graph Laplacian regularization term to increase training efficiency. Extensive experiments on several benchmark datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.
We propose a novel biologically-plausible solution to the credit assignment problem, being motivated by observations in the ventral visual pathway and trained deep neural networks. In both, representations of objects in the same category become progressively more similar, while objects belonging to different categories becomes less similar. We use this observation to motivate a layer-specific learning goal in a deep network: each layer aims to learn a representational similarity matrix that interpolates between previous and later layers. We formulate this idea using a supervised deep similarity matching cost function and derive from it deep neural networks with feedforward, lateral and feedback connections, and neurons that exhibit biologically-plausible Hebbian and anti-Hebbian plasticity. Supervised deep similarity matching can be interpreted as an energy-based learning algorithm, but with significant differences from others in how a contrastive function is constructed.
Label propagation is one of the state-of-the-art methods for semi-supervised learning, which estimates labels by propagating label information through a graph. Label propagation assumes that data points (nodes) connected in a graph should have similar labels. Consequently, the label estimation heavily depends on edge weights in a graph which represent similarity of each node pair. We propose a method for a graph to capture the manifold structure of input features using edge weights parameterized by a similarity function. In this approach, edge weights represent both similarity and local reconstruction weight simultaneously, both being reasonable for label propagation. For further justification, we provide analytical considerations including an interpretation as a cross-validation of a propagation model in the feature space, and an error analysis based on a low dimensional manifold model. Experimental results demonstrated the effectiveness of our approach both in synthetic and real datasets.
Generative Adversarial Networks are powerful generative models that are able to model the manifold of natural images. We leverage this property to perform manifold regularization by approximating a variant of the Laplacian norm using a Monte Carlo approximation that is easily computed with the GAN. When incorporated into the semi-supervised feature-matching GAN we achieve state-of-the-art results for GAN-based semi-supervised learning on CIFAR-10 and SVHN benchmarks, with a method that is significantly easier to implement than competing methods. We also find that manifold regularization improves the quality of generated images, and is affected by the quality of the GAN used to approximate the regularizer.