Many neurons in the brain, such as place cells in the rodent hippocampus, have localized receptive fields, i.e., they respond to a small neighborhood of stimulus space. What is the functional significance of such representations and how can they arise? Here, we propose that localized receptive fields emerge in similarity-preserving networks of rectifying neurons that learn low-dimensional manifolds populated by sensory inputs. Numerical simulations of such networks on standard datasets yield manifold-tiling localized receptive fields. More generally, we show analytically that, for data lying on symmetric manifolds, optimal solutions of objectives, from which similarity-preserving networks are derived, have localized receptive fields. Therefore, nonnegative similarity-preserving mapping (NSM) implemented by neural networks can model representations of continuous manifolds in the brain.
Label propagation is one of the state-of-the-art methods for semi-supervised learning, which estimates labels by propagating label information through a graph. Label propagation assumes that data points (nodes) connected in a graph should have similar labels. Consequently, the label estimation heavily depends on edge weights in a graph which represent similarity of each node pair. We propose a method for a graph to capture the manifold structure of input features using edge weights parameterized by a similarity function. In this approach, edge weights represent both similarity and local reconstruction weight simultaneously, both being reasonable for label propagation. For further justification, we provide analytical considerations including an interpretation as a cross-validation of a propagation model in the feature space, and an error analysis based on a low dimensional manifold model. Experimental results demonstrated the effectiveness of our approach both in synthetic and real datasets.
Generative Adversarial Networks are powerful generative models that are able to model the manifold of natural images. We leverage this property to perform manifold regularization by approximating a variant of the Laplacian norm using a Monte Carlo approximation that is easily computed with the GAN. When incorporated into the semi-supervised feature-matching GAN we achieve state-of-the-art results for GAN-based semi-supervised learning on CIFAR-10 and SVHN benchmarks, with a method that is significantly easier to implement than competing methods. We also find that manifold regularization improves the quality of generated images, and is affected by the quality of the GAN used to approximate the regularizer.
Zhang, Yan-Ming (Chinese Academy of Sciences) | Zhang, Yu (Hong Kong University of Science and Technology) | Yeung, Dit-Yan (Hong Kong University of Science and Technology) | Liu, Cheng-Lin (Chinese Academy of Sciences) | Hou, Xinwen (Chinese Academy of Sciences)
Graph-based semi-supervised learning methods are based on some smoothness assumption about the data. As a discrete approximation of the data manifold, the graph plays a crucial role in the success of such graph-based methods. In most existing methods, graph construction makes use of a predefined weighting function without utilizing label information even when it is available. In this work, by incorporating label information, we seek to enhance the performance of graph-based semi-supervised learning by learning the graph and label inference simultaneously. In particular, we consider a particular setting of semi-supervised learning called transductive learning. Using the LogDet divergence to define the objective function, we propose an iterative algorithm to solve the optimization problem which has closed-form solution in each step. We perform experiments on both synthetic and real data to demonstrate improvement in the graph and in terms of classification accuracy.
We investigate how generative adversarial nets (GANs) can help semi-supervised learning on graphs. We first provide insights on working principles of adversarial learning over graphs and then present GraphSGAN, a novel approach to semi-supervised learning on graphs. In GraphSGAN, generator and classifier networks play a novel competitive game. At equilibrium, generator generates fake samples in low-density areas between subgraphs. In order to discriminate fake samples from the real, classifier implicitly takes the density property of subgraph into consideration. An efficient adversarial learning algorithm has been developed to improve traditional normalized graph Laplacian regularization with a theoretical guarantee. Experimental results on several different genres of datasets show that the proposed GraphSGAN significantly outperforms several state-of-the-art methods. GraphSGAN can be also trained using mini-batch, thus enjoys the scalability advantage.