The PC algorithm allows investigators to estimate a complete partially directed acyclic graph (CPDAG) from a finite dataset, but few groups have investigated strategies for estimating and controlling the false discovery rate (FDR) of the edges in the CPDAG. In this paper, we introduce PC with p-values (PC-p), a fast algorithm which robustly computes edge-specific p-values and then estimates and controls the FDR across the edges. PC-p specifically uses the p-values returned by many conditional independence tests to upper bound the p-values of more complex edge-specific hypothesis tests. The algorithm then estimates and controls the FDR using the bounded p-values and the Benjamini-Yekutieli FDR procedure. Modifications to the original PC algorithm also help PC-p accurately compute the upper bounds despite non-zero Type II error rates. Experiments show that PC-p yields more accurate FDR estimation and control across the edges in a variety of CPDAGs compared to alternative methods.
This paper describes an effort to measure the effectiveness of tutor help in an intelligent tutoring system. Although conventional pre-and post-test experiments can determine whether tutor help is effective, they are expensive to conduct. Furthermore, pre-and post-test experiments often do not model student knowledge explicitly and thus are ignoring a source of information: students often request help about words they do not know. Therefore, we construct a dynamic Bayes net (which we call the Help model) that models tutor help and student knowledge in one coherent framework. The Help model distinguishes two different effects of help: scaffolding immediate performance vs. teaching persistent knowledge that improves long term performance. We train the Help model to fit student performance data gathered from usage of the Reading Tutor (Mostow & Aist, 2001). The parameters of the trained model suggest that students benefit from both the scaffolding and teaching effects of help. That is, students are more likely to perform correctly on the current attempt and learn persistent knowledge if tutor help is provided. Thus, our framework is able to distinguish two types of influence that tutor help has on the student, and can determine whether help helps learning without an explicit controlled study.
desJardins, Marie (University of Maryland Baltimore County) | Ciavolino, Amy (University of Maryland Baltimore County) | Deloatch, Robert (University of Maryland Baltimore County) | Feasley, Eliana (University of Maryland Baltimore County)
Intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) provide students with a one-on-one tutor, allowing them to work at their own pace, and helping them to focus on their weaker areas. The RUR1–Python Learning Environment (RUR-PLE), a game-like virtual environment to help students learn to program, provides an interface for students to write their own Python code and visualize the code execution (Roberge 2005). RUR-PLE provides a fixed sequence of learning lessons for students to explore. We are extending RUR-PLE to develop the Playing to Program (PtP) ITS, which consists of three components: (1) a Bayesian student model that tracks student competence, (2) a diagnosis module that provides tailored feedback to students, and (3) a problem selection module that guides the student’s learning process. In this paper, we summarize RUR-PLE and the PtP design, and describe an ongoing user study to evaluate the predictive accuracy of our student modeling approach.
In our previous study, we introduced stable specification search for cross-sectional data (S3C). It is an exploratory causal method that combines stability selection concept and multi-objective optimization to search for stable and parsimonious causal structures across the entire range of model complexities. In this study, we extended S3C to S3C-Latent, to model causal relations between latent variables. We evaluated S3C-Latent on simulated data and compared the results to those of PC-MIMBuild, an extension of the PC algorithm, the state-of-the-art causal discovery method. The comparison showed that S3C-Latent achieved better performance. We also applied S3C-Latent to real-world data of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and data about measuring mental abilities among pupils. The results are consistent with those of previous studies.
In order to investigate the breast cancer prediction problem on the aging population with the grades of DCIS, we conduct a tree augmented naive Bayesian network experiment trained and tested on a large clinical dataset including consecutive diagnostic mammography examinations, consequent biopsy outcomes and related cancer registry records in the population of women across all ages. The aggregated results of our ten-fold cross validation method recommend a biopsy threshold higher than 2% for the aging population.