For many automated driving functions, a highly accurate perception of the vehicle environment is a crucial prerequisite. Modern high-resolution radar sensors generate multiple radar targets per object, which makes these sensors particularly suitable for the 2D object detection task. This work presents an approach to detect object hypotheses solely depending on sparse radar data using PointNets. In literature, only methods are presented so far which perform either object classification or bounding box estimation for objects. In contrast, this method facilitates a classification together with a bounding box estimation of objects using a single radar sensor. To this end, PointNets are adjusted for radar data performing 2D object classification with segmentation, and 2D bounding box regression in order to estimate an amodal bounding box. The algorithm is evaluated using an automatically created dataset which consist of various realistic driving maneuvers. The results show the great potential of object detection in high-resolution radar data using PointNets.
In this paper, we present a novel framework to project automotive radar range-Doppler (RD) spectrum into camera image. The utilized warping operation is designed to be fully differentiable, which allows error backpropagation through the operation. This enables the training of neural networks (NN) operating exclusively on RD spectrum by utilizing labels provided from camera vision models. As the warping operation relies on accurate scene flow, additionally, we present a novel scene flow estimation algorithm fed from camera, lidar and radar, enabling us to improve the accuracy of the warping operation. We demonstrate the framework in multiple applications like direction-of-arrival (DoA) estimation, target detection, semantic segmentation and estimation of radar power from camera data. Extensive evaluations have been carried out for the DoA application and suggest superior quality for NN based estimators compared to classical estimators. The novel scene flow estimation approach is benchmarked against state-of-the-art scene flow algorithms and outperforms them by roughly a third.
Estimating and understanding the surroundings of the vehicle precisely forms the basic and crucial step for the autonomous vehicle. The perception system plays a significant role in providing an accurate interpretation of a vehicle's environment in real-time. Generally, the perception system involves various subsystems such as localization, obstacle (static and dynamic) detection, and avoidance, mapping systems, and others. For perceiving the environment, these vehicles will be equipped with various exteroceptive (both passive and active) sensors in particular cameras, Radars, LiDARs, and others. These systems are equipped with deep learning techniques that transform the huge amount of data from the sensors into semantic information on which the object detection and localization tasks are performed. For numerous driving tasks, to provide accurate results, the location and depth information of a particular object is necessary. 3D object detection methods, by utilizing the additional pose data from the sensors such as LiDARs, stereo cameras, provides information on the size and location of the object. Based on recent research, 3D object detection frameworks performing object detection and localization on LiDAR data and sensor fusion techniques show significant improvement in their performance. In this work, a comparative study of the effect of using LiDAR data for object detection frameworks and the performance improvement seen by using sensor fusion techniques are performed. Along with discussing various state-of-the-art methods in both the cases, performing experimental analysis, and providing future research directions.
While camera and LiDAR processing have been revolutionized since the introduction of deep learning, radar processing still relies on classical tools. In this paper, we introduce a deep learning approach for radar processing, working directly with the radar complex data. To overcome the lack of radar labeled data, we rely in training only on the radar calibration data and introduce new radar augmentation techniques. We evaluate our method on the radar 4D detection task and demonstrate superior performance compared to the classical approaches while keeping real-time performance. Applying deep learning on radar data has several advantages such as eliminating the need for an expensive radar calibration process each time and enabling classification of the detected objects with almost zero-overhead.
The usage of environment sensor models for virtual testing is a promising approach to reduce the testing effort of autonomous driving. However, in order to deduce any statements regarding the performance of an autonomous driving function based on simulation, the sensor model has to be validated to determine the discrepancy between the synthetic and real sensor data. Since a certain degree of divergence can be assumed to exist, the sufficient level of fidelity must be determined, which poses a major challenge. In particular, a method for quantifying the fidelity of a sensor model does not exist and the problem of defining an appropriate metric remains. In this work, we train a neural network to distinguish real and simulated radar sensor data with the purpose of learning the latent features of real radar point clouds. Furthermore, we propose the classifier's confidence score for the `real radar point cloud' class as a metric to determine the degree of fidelity of synthetically generated radar data. The presented approach is evaluated and it can be demonstrated that the proposed deep evaluation metric outperforms conventional metrics in terms of its capability to identify characteristic differences between real and simulated radar data.