Collaborating Authors

MultiWOZ 2.2 : A Dialogue Dataset with Additional Annotation Corrections and State Tracking Baselines Artificial Intelligence

MultiWOZ is a well-known task-oriented dialogue dataset containing over 10,000 annotated dialogues spanning 8 domains. It is extensively used as a benchmark for dialogue state tracking. However, recent works have reported presence of substantial noise in the dialogue state annotations. MultiWOZ 2.1 identified and fixed many of these erroneous annotations and user utterances, resulting in an improved version of this dataset. This work introduces MultiWOZ 2.2, which is a yet another improved version of this dataset. Firstly, we identify and fix dialogue state annotation errors across 17.3% of the utterances on top of MultiWOZ 2.1. Secondly, we redefine the ontology by disallowing vocabularies of slots with a large number of possible values (e.g., restaurant name, time of booking). In addition, we introduce slot span annotations for these slots to standardize them across recent models, which previously used custom string matching heuristics to generate them. We also benchmark a few state of the art dialogue state tracking models on the corrected dataset to facilitate comparison for future work. In the end, we discuss best practices for dialogue data collection that can help avoid annotation errors.

Find or Classify? Dual Strategy for Slot-Value Predictions on Multi-Domain Dialog State Tracking Artificial Intelligence

Dialog State Tracking (DST) is a core component in task-oriented dialog systems. Existing approaches for DST usually fall into two categories, i.e, the picklist-based and span-based. From one hand, the picklist-based methods perform classifications for each slot over a candidate-value list, under the condition that a pre-defined ontology is accessible. However, it is impractical in industry since it is hard to get full access to the ontology. On the other hand, the span-based methods track values for each slot through finding text spans in the dialog context. However, due to the diversity of value descriptions, it is hard to find a particular string in the dialog context. To mitigate these issues, this paper proposes a Dual Strategy for DST (DS-DST) to borrow advantages from both the picklist-based and span-based methods, by classifying over a picklist or finding values from a slot span. Empirical results show that DS-DST achieves the state-of-the-art scores in terms of joint accuracy, i.e., 51.2% on the MultiWOZ 2.1 dataset, and 53.3% when the full ontology is accessible.

Dual Slot Selector via Local Reliability Verification for Dialogue State Tracking Artificial Intelligence

The goal of dialogue state tracking (DST) is to predict the current dialogue state given all previous dialogue contexts. Existing approaches generally predict the dialogue state at every turn from scratch. However, the overwhelming majority of the slots in each turn should simply inherit the slot values from the previous turn. Therefore, the mechanism of treating slots equally in each turn not only is inefficient but also may lead to additional errors because of the redundant slot value generation. To address this problem, we devise the two-stage DSS-DST which consists of the Dual Slot Selector based on the current turn dialogue, and the Slot Value Generator based on the dialogue history. The Dual Slot Selector determines each slot whether to update slot value or to inherit the slot value from the previous turn from two aspects: (1) if there is a strong relationship between it and the current turn dialogue utterances; (2) if a slot value with high reliability can be obtained for it through the current turn dialogue. The slots selected to be updated are permitted to enter the Slot Value Generator to update values by a hybrid method, while the other slots directly inherit the values from the previous turn. Empirical results show that our method achieves 56.93%, 60.73%, and 58.04% joint accuracy on MultiWOZ 2.0, MultiWOZ 2.1, and MultiWOZ 2.2 datasets respectively and achieves a new state-of-the-art performance with significant improvements.

Multi-domain Dialogue State Tracking as Dynamic Knowledge Graph Enhanced Question Answering Artificial Intelligence

Multi-domain dialogue state tracking (DST) is a critical component for conversational AI systems. The domain ontology (i.e., specification of domains, slots, and values) of a conversational AI system is generally incomplete, making the capability for DST models to generalize to new slots, values, and domains during inference imperative. In this paper, we propose to model multi-domain DST as a question answering problem, referred to as Dialogue State Tracking via Question Answering (DSTQA). Within DSTQA, each turn generates a question asking for the value of a (domain, slot) pair, thus making it naturally extensible to unseen domains, slots, and values. Additionally, we use a dynamically-evolving knowledge graph to explicitly learn relationships between (domain, slot) pairs. Our model has a 5.80% and 12.21% relative improvement over the current state-of-the-art model on MultiWOZ 2.0 and MultiWOZ 2.1 datasets, respectively. Additionally, our model consistently outperforms the state-of-the-art model in domain adaptation settings.

Slot Self-Attentive Dialogue State Tracking Artificial Intelligence

An indispensable component in task-oriented dialogue systems is the dialogue state tracker, which keeps track of users' intentions in the course of conversation. The typical approach towards this goal is to fill in multiple pre-defined slots that are essential to complete the task. Although various dialogue state tracking methods have been proposed in recent years, most of them predict the value of each slot separately and fail to consider the correlations among slots. In this paper, we propose a slot self-attention mechanism that can learn the slot correlations automatically. Specifically, a slot-token attention is first utilized to obtain slot-specific features from the dialogue context. Then a stacked slot self-attention is applied on these features to learn the correlations among slots. We conduct comprehensive experiments on two multi-domain task-oriented dialogue datasets, including MultiWOZ 2.0 and MultiWOZ 2.1. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach achieves state-of-the-art performance on both datasets, verifying the necessity and effectiveness of taking slot correlations into consideration.