### CLEARumor at SemEval-2019 Task 7: ConvoLving ELMo Against Rumors

This paper describes our submission to SemEval-2019 Task 7: RumourEval: Determining Rumor Veracity and Support for Rumors. We participated in both subtasks. The goal of subtask A is to classify the type of interaction between a rumorous social media post and a reply post as support, query, deny, or comment. The goal of subtask B is to predict the veracity of a given rumor. For subtask A, we implement a CNN-based neural architecture using ELMo embeddings of post text combined with auxiliary features and achieve a F1-score of 44.6%. For subtask B, we employ a MLP neural network leveraging our estimates for subtask A and achieve a F1-score of 30.1% (second place in the competition). We provide results and analysis of our system performance and present ablation experiments.

### A Retrospective Analysis of the Fake News Challenge Stance Detection Task

The 2017 Fake News Challenge Stage 1 (FNC-1) shared task addressed a stance classification task as a crucial first step towards detecting fake news. To date, there is no in-depth analysis paper to critically discuss FNC-1's experimental setup, reproduce the results, and draw conclusions for next-generation stance classification methods. In this paper, we provide such an in-depth analysis for the three top-performing systems. We first find that FNC-1's proposed evaluation metric favors the majority class, which can be easily classified, and thus overestimates the true discriminative power of the methods. Therefore, we propose a new F1-based metric yielding a changed system ranking. Next, we compare the features and architectures used, which leads to a novel feature-rich stacked LSTM model that performs on par with the best systems, but is superior in predicting minority classes. To understand the methods' ability to generalize, we derive a new dataset and perform both in-domain and cross-domain experiments. Our qualitative and quantitative study helps interpreting the original FNC-1 scores and understand which features help improving performance and why. Our new dataset and all source code used during the reproduction study are publicly available for future research.

### Amobee at IEST 2018: Transfer Learning from Language Models

This paper describes the system developed at Amobee for the WASSA 2018 implicit emotions shared task (IEST). The goal of this task was to predict the emotion expressed by missing words in tweets without an explicit mention of those words. We developed an ensemble system consisting of language models together with LSTM-based networks containing a CNN attention mechanism. Our approach represents a novel use of language models (specifically trained on a large Twitter dataset) to predict and classify emotions. Our system reached 1st place with a macro $\text{F}_1$ score of 0.7145.

### Multi-task Learning of Pairwise Sequence Classification Tasks Over Disparate Label Spaces

We combine multi-task learning and semi-supervised learning by inducing a joint embedding space between disparate label spaces and learning transfer functions between label embeddings, enabling us to jointly leverage unlabelled data and auxiliary, annotated datasets. We evaluate our approach on a variety of sequence classification tasks with disparate label spaces. We outperform strong single and multi-task baselines and achieve a new state-of-the-art for aspect- and topic-based sentiment analysis.

### 360{\deg} Stance Detection

The proliferation of fake news and filter bubbles makes it increasingly difficult to form an unbiased, balanced opinion towards a topic. To ameliorate this, we propose 360{\deg} Stance Detection, a tool that aggregates news with multiple perspectives on a topic. It presents them on a spectrum ranging from support to opposition, enabling the user to base their opinion on multiple pieces of diverse evidence.