Ackerer, Damien, Tagasovska, Natasa, Vatter, Thibault

We present an artificial neural network (ANN) approach to value financial derivatives. Atypically to standard ANN applications, practitioners equally use option pricing models to validate market prices and to infer unobserved prices. Importantly, models need to generate realistic arbitrage-free prices, meaning that no option portfolio can lead to risk-free profits. The absence of arbitrage opportunities is guaranteed by penalizing the loss using soft constraints on an extended grid of input values. ANNs can be pre-trained by first calibrating a standard option pricing model, and then training an ANN to a larger synthetic dataset generated from the calibrated model. The parameters transfer as well as the non-arbitrage constraints appear to be particularly useful when only sparse or erroneous data are available. We also explore how deeper ANNs improve over shallower ones, as well as other properties of the network architecture. We benchmark our method against standard option pricing models, such as Heston with and without jumps. We validate our method both on training sets, and testing sets, namely, highlighting both their capacity to reproduce observed prices and predict new ones.

Yang, Yongxin (Queen Mary, University of London) | Zheng, Yu (Imperial College London) | Hospedales, Timothy M. (Queen Mary, University of London)

We propose a neural network approach to price EU call options that significantly outperforms some existing pricing models and comes with guarantees that its predictions are economically reasonable. To achieve this, we introduce a class of gated neural networks that automatically learn to divide-and-conquer the problem space for robust and accurate pricing. We then derive instantiations of these networks that are 'rational by design' in terms of naturally encoding a valid call option surface that enforces no arbitrage principles. This integration of human insight within data-driven learning provides significantly better generalisation in pricing performance due to the encoded inductive bias in the learning, guarantees sanity in the model's predictions, and provides econometrically useful byproduct such as risk neutral density.

This paper shows how the prices of option contracts traded in financial marketscan be tracked sequentially by means of the Extended Kalman Filter algorithm. I consider call and put option pairs with identical strike price and time of maturity as a two output nonlinear system.The Black-Scholes approach popular in Finance literature andthe Radial Basis Functions neural network are used in modelling the nonlinear system generating these observations. I show how both these systems may be identified recursively using the EKF algorithm. I present results of simulations on some FTSE 100 Index options data and discuss the implications of viewing the pricing problem in this sequential manner. 1 INTRODUCTION Data from the financial markets has recently been of much interest to the neural computing community. The complexity of the underlying macroeconomic system and how traders react to the flow of information leads to highly nonlinear relationships betweenobservations.

Abernethy, Jacob, Bartlett, Peter L., Frongillo, Rafael, Wibisono, Andre

We consider a popular problem in finance, option pricing, through the lens of an online learning game between Nature and an Investor. In the Black-Scholes option pricing model from 1973, the Investor can continuously hedge the risk of an option by trading the underlying asset, assuming that the asset's price fluctuates according to Geometric Brownian Motion (GBM). We consider a worst-case model, in which Nature chooses a sequence of price fluctuations under a cumulative quadratic volatility constraint, and the Investor can make a sequence of hedging decisions. Our main result is to show that the value of our proposed game, which is the regret'' of hedging strategy, converges to the Black-Scholes option price. We use significantly weaker assumptions than previous work---for instance, we allow large jumps in the asset price---and show that the Black-Scholes hedging strategy is near-optimal for the Investor even in this non-stochastic framework."

Abernethy, Jacob, Bartlett, Peter L., Frongillo, Rafael, Wibisono, Andre