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An Approach to Abductive Reasoning in Equational Logic

AAAI Conferences

Abduction has been extensively studied in propositional logic because of its many applications in artificial intelligence. However, its intrinsic complexity has been a limitation to the implementation of abductive reasoning tools in more expressive logics. We have devised such a tool in ground flat equational logic, in which literals are equations or disequations between constants. Our tool is based on the computation of prime implicates. It uses a relaxed paramodulation calculus, designed to generate all prime implicates of a formula, together with a carefully defined data structure storing the implicates and able to efficiently detect, and remove, redundancies. In addition to a detailed description of this method, we present an analysis of some experimental results.


Joint Tabling of Logic Program Abductions and Updates

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Abductive logic programs offer a formalism to declaratively represent and reason about problems in a variety of areas: diagnosis, decision making, hypothetical reasoning, etc. On the other hand, logic program updates allow us to express knowledge changes, be they internal (or self) and external (or world) changes. Abductive logic programs and logic program updates thus naturally coexist in problems that are susceptible to hypothetical reasoning about change. Taking this as a motivation, in this paper we integrate abductive logic programs and logic program updates by jointly exploiting tabling features of logic programming. The integration is based on and benefits from the two implementation techniques we separately devised previously, viz., tabled abduction and incremental tabling for query-driven propagation of logic program updates. A prototype of the integrated system is implemented in XSB Prolog.


Causes for Query Answers from Databases: Datalog Abduction, View-Updates, and Integrity Constraints

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Causality has been recently introduced in databases, to model, characterize, and possibly compute causes for query answers. Connections between QA-causality and consistency-based diagnosis and database repairs (wrt. integrity constraint violations) have already been established. In this work we establish precise connections between QA-causality and both abductive diagnosis and the view-update problem in databases, allowing us to obtain new algorithmic and complexity results for QA-causality. We also obtain new results on the complexity of view-conditioned causality, and investigate the notion of QA-causality in the presence of integrity constraints, obtaining complexity results from a connection with view-conditioned causality. The abduction connection under integrity constraints allows us to obtain algorithmic tools for QA-causality.


Coherent Integration of Databases by Abductive Logic Programming

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

Abstract: We introduce an abductive method for a coherent integration of independent data-sources. The idea is to compute a list of data-facts that should be inserted to the amalgamated database or retracted from it in order to restore its consistency. This method is implemented by an abductive solver, called Asystem, that applies SLDNFA-resolution on a meta-theory that relates different, possibly contradicting, input databases. We also give a pure model-theoretic analysis of the possible ways to `recover' consistent data from an inconsistent database in terms of those models of the database that exhibit as minimal inconsistent information as reasonably possible. This allows us to characterize the `recovered databases' in terms of the `preferred' (i.e., most consistent) models of the theory. The outcome is an abductive-based application that is sound and complete with respect to a corresponding model-based, preferential semantics, and -- to the best of our knowledge -- is more expressive (thus more general) than any other implementation of coherent integration of databases.


Dishonest Reasoning by Abduction

AAAI Conferences

This paper studies a computational logic for dishonest reasoning. We introduce logic programs with disinformation to represent and reason with dishonesty. We then consider two different cases of dishonesty: deductive dishonesty and abductive dishonesty. The former misleads another agent to deduce wrong conclusions, while the latter interrupts another agent to abduce correct explanations. In deductive or abductive dishonesty, an agent can perform different types of dishonest reasoning such as lying, bullshitting, and withholding information. We show that these different types of dishonest reasoning are characterized by extended abduction, and address their computational methods using abductive logic programming.