Collaborating Authors

Self-Consistent Trajectory Autoencoder: Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning with Trajectory Embeddings Machine Learning

In this work, we take a representation learning perspective on hierarchical reinforcement learning, where the problem of learning lower layers in a hierarchy is transformed into the problem of learning trajectory-level generative models. We show that we can learn continuous latent representations of trajectories, which are effective in solving temporally extended and multi-stage problems. Our proposed model, SeCTAR, draws inspiration from variational autoencoders, and learns latent representations of trajectories. A key component of this method is to learn both a latent-conditioned policy and a latent-conditioned model which are consistent with each other. Given the same latent, the policy generates a trajectory which should match the trajectory predicted by the model. This model provides a built-in prediction mechanism, by predicting the outcome of closed loop policy behavior. We propose a novel algorithm for performing hierarchical RL with this model, combining model-based planning in the learned latent space with an unsupervised exploration objective. We show that our model is effective at reasoning over long horizons with sparse rewards for several simulated tasks, outperforming standard reinforcement learning methods and prior methods for hierarchical reasoning, model-based planning, and exploration.

A Hierarchical Latent Vector Model for Learning Long-Term Structure in Music Machine Learning

The Variational Autoencoder (VAE) has proven to be an effective model for producing semantically meaningful latent representations for natural data. However, it has thus far seen limited application to sequential data, and, as we demonstrate, existing recurrent VAE models have difficulty modeling sequences with long-term structure. To address this issue, we propose the use of a hierarchical decoder, which first outputs embeddings for subsequences of the input and then uses these embeddings to generate each subsequence independently. This structure encourages the model to utilize its latent code, thereby avoiding the "posterior collapse" problem which remains an issue for recurrent VAEs. We apply this architecture to modeling sequences of musical notes and find that it exhibits dramatically better sampling, interpolation, and reconstruction performance than a "flat" baseline model. An implementation of our "MusicVAE" is available online at

Auto-Encoding Variational Bayes Machine Learning

How can we perform efficient inference and learning in directed probabilistic models, in the presence of continuous latent variables with intractable posterior distributions, and large datasets? We introduce a stochastic variational inference and learning algorithm that scales to large datasets and, under some mild differentiability conditions, even works in the intractable case. Our contributions is two-fold. First, we show that a reparameterization of the variational lower bound yields a lower bound estimator that can be straightforwardly optimized using standard stochastic gradient methods. Second, we show that for i.i.d. datasets with continuous latent variables per datapoint, posterior inference can be made especially efficient by fitting an approximate inference model (also called a recognition model) to the intractable posterior using the proposed lower bound estimator. Theoretical advantages are reflected in experimental results.

Learning latent variable structured prediction models with Gaussian perturbations

Neural Information Processing Systems

The standard margin-based structured prediction commonly uses a maximum loss over all possible structured outputs. The large-margin formulation including latent variables not only results in a non-convex formulation but also increases the search space by a factor of the size of the latent space. Recent work has proposed the use of the maximum loss over random structured outputs sampled independently from some proposal distribution, with theoretical guarantees. We extend this work by including latent variables. We study a new family of loss functions under Gaussian perturbations and analyze the effect of the latent space on the generalization bounds.

Variational autoencoders


In my introductory post on autoencoders, I discussed various models (undercomplete, sparse, denoising, contractive) which take data as input and discover some latent state representation of that data. More specifically, our input data is converted into an encoding vector where each dimension represents some learned attribute about the data. The most important detail to grasp here is that our encoder network is outputting a single value for each encoding dimension. The decoder network then subsequently takes these values and attempts to recreate the original input. A variational autoencoder (VAE) provides a probabilistic manner for describing an observation in latent space.