Ontology merging is important, but not always effective. The main reason, why ontology merging is not effective, is that ontology merging is perform ed without considering goals. Goals define the way, in which ontologies to be merg ed more effectively. The paper illustrates ontology m erging by means of rules, which are generate d from these ontologies. This is necessary for further use in expert systems.
Background. Most tutorial ontologies focus on illustrating one aspect of ontology development, notably language features and automated reasoners, but ignore ontology development factors, such as emergent modelling guidelines and ontological principles. Yet, novices replicate examples from the exercises they carry out. Not providing good examples holistically causes the propagation of sub-optimal ontology development, which may negatively affect the quality of a real domain ontology. Results. We identified 22 requirements that a good tutorial ontology should satisfy regarding subject domain, logics and reasoning, and engineering aspects. We developed a set of ontologies about African Wildlife to serve as tutorial ontologies. A majority of the requirements have been met with the set of African Wildlife Ontology tutorial ontologies, which are introduced in this paper. The African Wildlife Ontology is mature and has been used yearly in an ontology engineering course or tutorial since 2010 and is included in a recent ontology engineering textbook with relevant examples and exercises. Conclusion. The African Wildlife Ontology provides a wide range of options concerning examples and exercises for ontology engineering well beyond illustrating only language features and automated reasoning. It assists in demonstrating tasks about ontology quality, such as alignment to a foundational ontology and satisfying competency questions, versioning, and multilingual ontologies.
We focus on handling conflicting and uncertain information in lightweight ontologies, where uncertainty is represented in a possibilistic logic setting. We use DL-Lite, a tractable fragment of Description Logic, to specify terminological knowledge (i.e., TBox). We assume the TBox to be stable and coherent, while its combination with a set of assertional facts (i.e., ABox) may be inconsistent. We address the problem of dealing with conflicts when the reliability relation between sources is only partially ordered. We propose to represent the uncertain ABox as a symbolic weighted base, where a strict partial preorder is applied on the weights. In this context, we provide a strategy for computing a single repair for the ABox, called the partial possibilistic repair. The idea is to consider all compatible bases of a partially preordered ABox (which intuitively encode total extensions of the partial preorder), compute their associated possibilistic repairs, before intersecting those repairs. We define the notion of π-accepted assertions and provide an equivalent characterization, therefore ensuring tractable computations of our method.
Knowledge bases in the form of ontologies are receiving increasing attention as they allow to clearly represent both the available knowledge, which includes the knowledge in itself and the constraints imposed to it by the domain or the users. In particular, Datalog ontologies are attractive because of their property of decidability and the possibility of dealing with the massive amounts of data in real world environments; however, as it is the case with many other ontological languages, their application in collaborative environments often lead to inconsistency related issues. In this paper we introduce the notion of incoherence regarding Datalog ontologies, in terms of satisfiability of sets of constraints, and show how under specific conditions incoherence leads to inconsistent Datalog ontologies. The main contribution of this work is a novel approach to restore both consistency and coherence in Datalog ontologies. The proposed approach is based on kernel contraction and restoration is performed by the application of incision functions that select formulas to delete. Nevertheless, instead of working over minimal incoherent/inconsistent sets encountered in the ontologies, our operators produce incisions over non-minimal structures called clusters. We present a construction for consolidation operators, along with the properties expected to be satisfied by them. Finally, we establish the relation between the construction and the properties by means of a representation theorem. Although this proposal is presented for Datalog ontologies consolidation, these operators can be applied to other types of ontological languages, such as Description Logics, making them apt to be used in collaborative environments like the Semantic Web.
In this paper we present a new method for ontology selection in a reuse context. The novel feature of this method is the iterative selection of the reused ontologies. Ontology selection is guided by the user according to his requirements and his perception to the target domain. Starting from a ﬁrst selected ontology, the concepts with the weakest density are identiﬁed then the ontology developer is enabled to choose among them the ones to be reﬁned in order to cover a speciﬁc scope of the domain.