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Implementations in Machine Ethics: A Survey

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Increasingly complex and autonomous systems require machine ethics to maximize the benefits and minimize the risks to society arising from the new technology. It is challenging to decide which type of ethical theory to employ and how to implement it effectively. This survey provides a threefold contribution. Firstly, it introduces a taxonomy to analyze the field of machine ethics from an ethical, implementational, and technical perspective. Secondly, an exhaustive selection and description of relevant works is presented. Thirdly, applying the new taxonomy to the selected works, dominant research patterns and lessons for the field are identified, and future directions for research are suggested.


Domain-adversarial Network Alignment

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Network alignment is a critical task to a wide variety of fields. Many existing works leverage on representation learning to accomplish this task without eliminating domain representation bias induced by domain-dependent features, which yield inferior alignment performance. This paper proposes a unified deep architecture (DANA) to obtain a domain-invariant representation for network alignment via an adversarial domain classifier. Specifically, we employ the graph convolutional networks to perform network embedding under the domain adversarial principle, given a small set of observed anchors. Then, the semi-supervised learning framework is optimized by maximizing a posterior probability distribution of observed anchors and the loss of a domain classifier simultaneously. We also develop a few variants of our model, such as, direction-aware network alignment, weight-sharing for directed networks and simplification of parameter space. Experiments on three real-world social network datasets demonstrate that our proposed approaches achieve state-of-the-art alignment results.


DeepHealth: Deep Learning for Health Informatics

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Machine learning and deep learning have provided us with an exploration of a whole new research era. As more data and better computational power become available, they have been implemented in various fields. The demand for artificial intelligence in the field of health informatics is also increasing and we can expect to see the potential benefits of artificial intelligence applications in healthcare. Deep learning can help clinicians diagnose disease, identify cancer sites, identify drug effects for each patient, understand the relationship between genotypes and phenotypes, explore new phenotypes, and predict infectious disease outbreaks with high accuracy. In contrast to traditional models, its approach does not require domain-specific data pre-process, and it is expected that it will ultimately change human life a lot in the future. Despite its notable advantages, there are some challenges on data (high dimensionality, heterogeneity, time dependency, sparsity, irregularity, lack of label) and model (reliability, interpretability, feasibility, security, scalability) for practical use. This article presents a comprehensive review of research applying deep learning in health informatics with a focus on the last five years in the fields of medical imaging, electronic health records, genomics, sensing, and online communication health, as well as challenges and promising directions for future research. We highlight ongoing popular approaches' research and identify several challenges in building deep learning models.


Measuring the Business Value of Recommender Systems

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Recommender Systems are nowadays successfully used by all major web sites (from e-commerce to social media) to filter content and make suggestions in a personalized way. Academic research largely focuses on the value of recommenders for consumers, e.g., in terms of reduced information overload. To what extent and in which ways recommender systems create business value is, however, much less clear, and the literature on the topic is scattered. In this research commentary, we review existing publications on field tests of recommender systems and report which business-related performance measures were used in such real-world deployments. We summarize common challenges of measuring the business value in practice and critically discuss the value of algorithmic improvements and offline experiments as commonly done in academic environments. Overall, our review indicates that various open questions remain both regarding the realistic quantification of the business effects of recommenders and the performance assessment of recommendation algorithms in academia.


Analyzing Recurrent Neural Network by Probabilistic Abstraction

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Neural network is becoming the dominant approach for solving many real-world problems like computer vision and natural language processing due to its exceptional performance as an end-to-end solution. However, deep learning models are complex and work in a black-box manner in general. This hinders humans from understanding how such systems make decisions or analyzing them using traditional software analysis techniques like testing and verification. To solve this problem and bridge the gap, several recent approaches have proposed to extract simple models in the form of finite-state automata or weighted automata for human understanding and reasoning. The results are however not encouraging due to multiple reasons like low accuracy and scalability issue. In this work, we propose to extract models in the form of probabilistic automata from recurrent neural network models instead. Our work distinguishes itself from existing approaches in two important ways. One is that we extract probabilistic models to compensate for the limited expressiveness of simple models (compared to that of deep neural networks). This is inspired by the observation that human reasoning is often `probabilistic'. The other is that we identify the right level of abstraction based on hierarchical clustering so that the models are extracted in a task-specific way. We conducted experiments on several real-world datasets using state-of-the-art RNN architectures including GRU and LSTM. The result shows that our approach improves existing model extraction approaches significantly and can produce simple models which accurately mimic the original models.