Collaborating Authors

Characterization of Glue Variables in CDCL SAT Solving Artificial Intelligence

A state-of-the-art criterion to evaluate the importance of a given learned clause is called Literal Block Distance (LBD) score. It measures the number of distinct decision levels in a given learned clause. The lower the LBD score of a learned clause, the better is its quality. The learned clauses with LBD score of 2, called glue clauses, are known to possess high pruning power which are never deleted from the clause databases of the modern CDCL SAT solvers. In this work, we relate glue clauses to decision variables. We call the variables that appeared in at least one glue clause up to the current search state glue variables. We first show experimentally, by running the state-of-the-art CDCL SAT solver MapleL-CMDist on benchmarks from SAT Competition-2017 and 2018, that branching decisions with glue variables are categorically more inference and conflict efficient than nonglue variables. Based on this observation, we develop a structure aware CDCL variable bumping scheme, which bumps the activity score of a glue variable based on its appearance count in the glue clauses that are learned so far by the search. Empirical evaluation shows effectiveness of the new method over the main track instances from SAT Competition 2017 and 2018.

MatSat: a matrix-based differentiable SAT solver Artificial Intelligence

We propose a new approach to SAT solving which solves SAT problems in vector spaces as a cost minimization problem of a non-negative differentiable cost function J^sat. In our approach, a solution, i.e., satisfying assignment, for a SAT problem in n variables is represented by a binary vector u in {0,1}^n that makes J^sat(u) zero. We search for such u in a vector space R^n by cost minimization, i.e., starting from an initial u_0 and minimizing J to zero while iteratively updating u by Newton's method. We implemented our approach as a matrix-based differential SAT solver MatSat. Although existing main-stream SAT solvers decide each bit of a solution assignment one by one, be they of conflict driven clause learning (CDCL) type or of stochastic local search (SLS) type, MatSat fundamentally differs from them in that it continuously approach a solution in a vector space. We conducted an experiment to measure the scalability of MatSat with random 3-SAT problems in which MatSat could find a solution up to n=10^5 variables. We also compared MatSat with four state-of-the-art SAT solvers including winners of SAT competition 2018 and SAT Race 2019 in terms of time for finding a solution, using a random benchmark set from SAT 2018 competition and an artificial random 3-SAT instance set. The result shows that MatSat comes in second in both test sets and outperforms all the CDCL type solvers.

Clause Vivification by Unit Propagation in CDCL SAT Solvers Artificial Intelligence

Original and learnt clauses in Conflict-Driven Clause Learning (CDCL) SAT solvers often contain redundant literals. This may have a negative impact on performance because redundant literals may deteriorate both the effectiveness of Boolean constraint propagation and the quality of subsequent learnt clauses. To overcome this drawback, we propose a clause vivification approach that eliminates redundant literals by applying unit propagation. The proposed clause vivification is activated before the SAT solver triggers some selected restarts, and only affects a subset of original and learnt clauses, which are considered to be more relevant according to metrics like the literal block distance (LBD). Moreover, we conducted an empirical investigation with instances coming from the hard combinatorial and application categories of recent SAT competitions. The results show that a remarkable number of additional instances are solved when the proposed approach is incorporated into five of the best performing CDCL SAT solvers (Glucose, TC_Glucose, COMiniSatPS, MapleCOMSPS and MapleCOMSPS_LRB). More importantly, the empirical investigation includes an in-depth analysis of the effectiveness of clause vivification. It is worth mentioning that one of the SAT solvers described here was ranked first in the main track of SAT Competition 2017 thanks to the incorporation of the proposed clause vivification. That solver was further improved in this paper and won the bronze medal in the main track of SAT Competition 2018.

Branching Strategy Selection Approach Based on Vivification Ratio Artificial Intelligence

The two most effective branching strategies LRB and VSIDS perform differently on different types of instances. Generally, LRB is more effective on crafted instances, while VSIDS is more effective on application ones. However, distinguishing the types of instances is difficult. To overcome this drawback, we propose a branching strategy selection approach based on the vivification ratio. This approach uses the LRB branching strategy more to solve the instances with a very low vivification ratio. We tested the instances from the main track of SAT competitions in recent years. The results show that the proposed approach is robust and it significantly increases the number of solved instances. It is worth mentioning that, with the help of our approach, the solver Maple\_CM can solve more than 16 instances for the benchmark from the 2020 SAT competition.

NLocalSAT: Boosting Local Search with Solution Prediction Artificial Intelligence

The boolean satisfiability problem is a famous NP-complete problem in computer science. An effective way for this problem is the stochastic local search (SLS). However, in this method, the initialization is assigned in a random manner, which impacts the effectiveness of SLS solvers. To address this problem, we propose NLocalSAT. NLocalSAT combines SLS with a solution prediction model, which boosts SLS by changing initialization assignments with a neural network. We evaluated NLocalSAT on five SLS solvers (CCAnr, Sparrow, CPSparrow, YalSAT, and probSAT) with problems in the random track of SAT Competition 2018. The experimental results show that solvers with NLocalSAT achieve 27%~62% improvement over the original SLS solvers.