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What Is The Emoluments Clause? Full Definition And Text Of Constitutional Clause Decrying Conflicts Of Interest

International Business Times

A Constitutional clause relating to conflict of interest may already be giving President Donald Trump trouble. Even prior to assuming his position as president of the United States, Trump was hit with allegations he already has violated the Emoluments Clause or the Foreign Emoluments Clause. The claims are related to Trump's business interests and their connection to overseas companies and payments. "No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no person holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office or title of any kind whatever, from any king, prince or foreign state." Ethics experts filed a lawsuit in federal court Monday, claiming Trump has, indeed, violated the Emoluments Clause, citing multiple examples of conflicts of interest, NPR reported Monday.


A Proof-Producing CSP Solver

AAAI Conferences

PCS is a CSP solver that can produce a machine-checkable deductive proof in case it decides that the input problem is unsatisfiable. The roots of the proof may be nonclausal constraints, whereas the rest of the proof is based on resolution of signed clauses, ending with the empty clause. PCS uses parameterized, constraint-specific inference rules in order to bridge between the nonclausal and the clausal parts of the proof. The consequent of each such rule is a signed clause that is 1) logically implied by the nonclausal premise, and 2) strong enough to be the premise of the consecutive proof steps. The resolution process itself is integrated in the learning mechanism, and can be seen as a generalization to CSP of a similar solution that is adopted by competitive SAT solvers.


Control-based Clause Sharing in Parallel SAT Solving

AAAI Conferences

Conflict driven clause learning, one of the most important component of modern SAT solvers, is also recognized as very important in parallel SAT solving. Indeed, it allows clause sharing between multiple processing units working on related (sub-)problems. However, without limitation, sharing clauses might lead to an exponential blow up in communication or to the sharing of irrelevant clauses. This paper, proposes two innovative policies to dynamically adjust the size of shared clauses between any pair of processing units. The first approach controls the overall number of exchanged clauses whereas the second additionally exploits the relevance quality of shared clauses. Experimental results show important improvements of the state-of the-art parallel SAT solver.


Clause Vivification by Unit Propagation in CDCL SAT Solvers

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Original and learnt clauses in Conflict-Driven Clause Learning (CDCL) SAT solvers often contain redundant literals. This may have a negative impact on performance because redundant literals may deteriorate both the effectiveness of Boolean constraint propagation and the quality of subsequent learnt clauses. To overcome this drawback, we propose a clause vivification approach that eliminates redundant literals by applying unit propagation. The proposed clause vivification is activated before the SAT solver triggers some selected restarts, and only affects a subset of original and learnt clauses, which are considered to be more relevant according to metrics like the literal block distance (LBD). Moreover, we conducted an empirical investigation with instances coming from the hard combinatorial and application categories of recent SAT competitions. The results show that a remarkable number of additional instances are solved when the proposed approach is incorporated into five of the best performing CDCL SAT solvers (Glucose, TC_Glucose, COMiniSatPS, MapleCOMSPS and MapleCOMSPS_LRB). More importantly, the empirical investigation includes an in-depth analysis of the effectiveness of clause vivification. It is worth mentioning that one of the SAT solvers described here was ranked first in the main track of SAT Competition 2017 thanks to the incorporation of the proposed clause vivification. That solver was further improved in this paper and won the bronze medal in the main track of SAT Competition 2018.


On Improving Local Search for Unsatisfiability

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Stochastic local search (SLS) has been an active field of research in the last few years, with new techniques and procedures being developed at an astonishing rate. SLS has been traditionally associated with satisfiability solving, that is, finding a solution for a given problem instance, as its intrinsic nature does not address unsatisfiable problems. Unsatisfiable instances were therefore commonly solved using backtrack search solvers. For this reason, in the late 90s Selman, Kautz and McAllester proposed a challenge to use local search instead to prove unsatisfiability. More recently, two SLS solvers - Ranger and Gunsat - have been developed, which are able to prove unsatisfiability albeit being SLS solvers. In this paper, we first compare Ranger with Gunsat and then propose to improve Ranger performance using some of Gunsat's techniques, namely unit propagation look-ahead and extended resolution.