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End-to-end Structure-Aware Convolutional Networks for Knowledge Base Completion

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Knowledge graph embedding has been an active research topic for knowledge base completion, with progressive improvement from the initial TransE, TransH, DistMult et al to the current state-of-the-art ConvE. ConvE uses 2D convolution over embeddings and multiple layers of nonlinear features to model knowledge graphs. The model can be efficiently trained and scalable to large knowledge graphs. However, there is no structure enforcement in the embedding space of ConvE. The recent graph convolutional network (GCN) provides another way of learning graph node embedding by successfully utilizing graph connectivity structure. In this work, we propose a novel end-to-end Structure-Aware Convolutional Network (SACN) that takes the benefit of GCN and ConvE together. SACN consists of an encoder of a weighted graph convolutional network (WGCN), and a decoder of a convolutional network called Conv-TransE. WGCN utilizes knowledge graph node structure, node attributes and edge relation types. It has learnable weights that adapt the amount of information from neighbors used in local aggregation, leading to more accurate embeddings of graph nodes. Node attributes in the graph are represented as additional nodes in the WGCN. The decoder Conv-TransE enables the state-of-the-art ConvE to be translational between entities and relations while keeps the same link prediction performance as ConvE. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed SACN on standard FB15k-237 and WN18RR datasets, and it gives about 10% relative improvement over the state-of-the-art ConvE in terms of HITS@1, HITS@3 and HITS@10.


Leveraging Knowledge Graph Embedding Techniques for Industry 4.0 Use Cases

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Industry is evolving towards Industry 4.0, which holds the promise of increased flexibility in manufacturing, better quality and improved productivity. A core actor of this growth is using sensors, which must capture data that can used in unforeseen ways to achieve a performance not achievable without them. However, the complexity of this improved setting is much greater than what is currently used in practice. Hence, it is imperative that the management cannot only be performed by human labor force, but part of that will be done by automated algorithms instead. A natural way to represent the data generated by this large amount of sensors, which are not acting measuring independent variables, and the interaction of the different devices is by using a graph data model. Then, machine learning could be used to aid the Industry 4.0 system to, for example, perform predictive maintenance. However, machine learning directly on graphs, needs feature engineering and has scalability issues. In this paper we discuss methods to convert (embed) the graph in a vector space, such that it becomes feasible to use traditional machine learning methods for Industry 4.0 settings.


Scientific Knowledge Graph

#artificialintelligence

In the last decade, we experienced an urgent need for a flexible, context-sensitive, fine-grained, and machine-actionable representation of scholarly knowledge and corresponding infrastructures for knowledge curation, publishing and processing. Such technical infrastructures are becoming increasingly popular in representing scholarly knowledge as structured, interlinked, and semantically rich Scientific Knowledge Graphs (SKG). Knowledge graphs are large networks of entities and relationships, usually expressed in W3C standards such as OWL and RDF. SKGs focus on the scholarly domain and describe the actors (e.g., authors, organizations), the documents (e.g., publications, patents), and the research knowledge (e.g., research topics, tasks, technologies) in this space as well as their reciprocal relationships. These resources provide substantial benefits to researchers, companies, and policymakers by powering several data-driven services for navigating, analysing, and making sense of research dynamics.


Soft Marginal TransE for Scholarly Knowledge Graph Completion

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Knowledge graphs (KGs), i.e. representation of information as a semantic graph, provide a significant test bed for many tasks including question answering, recommendation, and link prediction. Various amount of scholarly metadata have been made vailable as knowledge graphs from the diversity of data providers and agents. However, these high-quantities of data remain far from quality criteria in terms of completeness while growing at a rapid pace. Most of the attempts in completing such KGs are following traditional data digitization, harvesting and collaborative curation approaches. Whereas, advanced AI-related approaches such as embedding models - specifically designed for such tasks - are usually evaluated for standard benchmarks such as Freebase and Wordnet. The tailored nature of such datasets prevents those approaches to shed the lights on more accurate discoveries. Application of such models on domain-specific KGs takes advantage of enriched meta-data and provides accurate results where the underlying domain can enormously benefit. In this work, the TransE embedding model is reconciled for a specific link prediction task on scholarly metadata. The results show a significant shift in the accuracy and performance evaluation of the model on a dataset with scholarly metadata. The newly proposed version of TransE obtains 99.9% for link prediction task while original TransE gets 95%. In terms of accuracy and Hit@10, TransE outperforms other embedding models such as ComplEx, TransH and TransR experimented over scholarly knowledge graphs


KagNet: Knowledge-Aware Graph Networks for Commonsense Reasoning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Commonsense reasoning aims to empower machines with the human ability to make presumptions about ordinary situations in our daily life. In this paper, we propose a textual inference framework for answering commonsense questions, which effectively utilizes external, structured commonsense knowledge graphs to perform explainable inferences. The framework first grounds a question-answer pair from the semantic space to the knowledge-based symbolic space as a schema graph, a related sub-graph of external knowledge graphs. It represents schema graphs with a novel knowledge-aware graph network module named KagNet, and finally scores answers with graph representations. Our model is based on graph convolutional networks and LSTMs, with a hierarchical path-based attention mechanism. The intermediate attention scores make it transparent and interpretable, which thus produce trustworthy inferences. Using ConceptNet as the only external resource for Bert-based models, we achieved state-of-the-art performance on the CommonsenseQA, a large-scale dataset for commonsense reasoning.