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Revisiting the Importance of Individual Units in CNNs via Ablation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We revisit the importance of the individual units in Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) for visual recognition. By conducting unit ablation experiments on CNNs trained on large scale image datasets, we demonstrate that, though ablating any individual unit does not hurt overall classification accuracy, it does lead to significant damage on the accuracy of specific classes. This result shows that an individual unit is specialized to encode information relevant to a subset of classes. We compute the correlation between the accuracy drop under unit ablation and various attributes of an individual unit such as class selectivity and weight L1 norm. We confirm that unit attributes such as class selectivity are a poor predictor for impact on overall accuracy as found previously in recent work \cite{morcos2018importance}. However, our results show that class selectivity along with other attributes are good predictors of the importance of one unit to individual classes. We evaluate the impact of random rotation, batch normalization, and dropout to the importance of units to specific classes. Our results show that units with high selectivity play an important role in network classification power at the individual class level. Understanding and interpreting the behavior of these units is necessary and meaningful.


Notes on a New Philosophy of Empirical Science

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This book presents a methodology and philosophy of empirical science based on large scale lossless data compression. In this view a theory is scientific if it can be used to build a data compression program, and it is valuable if it can compress a standard benchmark database to a small size, taking into account the length of the compressor itself. This methodology therefore includes an Occam principle as well as a solution to the problem of demarcation. Because of the fundamental difficulty of lossless compression, this type of research must be empirical in nature: compression can only be achieved by discovering and characterizing empirical regularities in the data. Because of this, the philosophy provides a way to reformulate fields such as computer vision and computational linguistics as empirical sciences: the former by attempting to compress databases of natural images, the latter by attempting to compress large text databases. The book argues that the rigor and objectivity of the compression principle should set the stage for systematic progress in these fields. The argument is especially strong in the context of computer vision, which is plagued by chronic problems of evaluation. The book also considers the field of machine learning. Here the traditional approach requires that the models proposed to solve learning problems be extremely simple, in order to avoid overfitting. However, the world may contain intrinsically complex phenomena, which would require complex models to understand. The compression philosophy can justify complex models because of the large quantity of data being modeled (if the target database is 100 Gb, it is easy to justify a 10 Mb model). The complex models and abstractions learned on the basis of the raw data (images, language, etc) can then be reused to solve any specific learning problem, such as face recognition or machine translation.


Machine Learning Testing: Survey, Landscapes and Horizons

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This paper provides a comprehensive survey of Machine Learning Testing (ML testing) research. It covers 128 papers on testing properties (e.g., correctness, robustness, and fairness), testing components (e.g., the data, learning program, and framework), testing workflow (e.g., test generation and test evaluation), and application scenarios (e.g., autonomous driving, machine translation). The paper also analyses trends concerning datasets, research trends, and research focus, concluding with research challenges and promising research directions in ML testing.


Probabilistic Prediction of Vehicle Semantic Intention and Motion

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Accurately predicting the possible behaviors of traffic participants is an essential capability for future autonomous vehicles. The majority of current researches fix the number of driving intentions by considering only a specific scenario. However, distinct driving environments usually contain various possible driving maneuvers. Therefore, a intention prediction method that can adapt to different traffic scenarios is needed. To further improve the overall vehicle prediction performance, motion information is usually incorporated with classified intentions. As suggested in some literature, the methods that directly predict possible goal locations can achieve better performance for long-term motion prediction than other approaches due to their automatic incorporation of environment constraints. Moreover, by obtaining the temporal information of the predicted destinations, the optimal trajectories for predicted vehicles as well as the desirable path for ego autonomous vehicle could be easily generated. In this paper, we propose a Semantic-based Intention and Motion Prediction (SIMP) method, which can be adapted to any driving scenarios by using semantic-defined vehicle behaviors. It utilizes a probabilistic framework based on deep neural network to estimate the intentions, final locations, and the corresponding time information for surrounding vehicles. An exemplar real-world scenario was used to implement and examine the proposed method.


Teaching Vehicles to Anticipate: A Systematic Study on Probabilistic Behavior Prediction using Large Data Sets

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Observations of traffic participants and their environment enable humans to drive road vehicles safely. However, when being driven, there is a notable difference between having a non-experienced vs. an experienced driver. One may get the feeling, that the latter one anticipates what may happen in the next few moments and considers these foresights in his driving behavior. To make the driving style of automated vehicles comparable to a human driver in the sense of comfort and perceived safety, the aforementioned anticipation skills need to become a built-in feature of self-driving vehicles. This article provides a systematic comparison of methods and strategies to generate this intention for self-driving cars using machine learning techniques. To implement and test these algorithms we use a large data set collected over more than 30000 km of highway driving and containing approximately 40000 real world driving situations. Moreover, we show that it is possible to certainly detect more than 47 % of all lane changes on German highways 3 or more seconds in advance with a false positive rate of less than 1 %. This enables us to predict the lateral position with a prediction horizon of 5 s with a median error of less than 0.21 m.