With an aging and growing population, the number of women requiring either screening or symptomatic mammograms is increasing. To reduce the number of mammograms that need to be read by a radiologist while keeping the diagnostic accuracy the same or better than current clinical practice, we develop Man and Machine Mammography Oracle (MAMMO) - a clinical decision support system capable of triaging mammograms into those that can be confidently classified by a machine and those that cannot be, thus requiring the reading of a radiologist. The first component of MAMMO is a novel multi-view convolutional neural network (CNN) with multi-task learning (MTL). MTL enables the CNN to learn the radiological assessments known to be associated with cancer, such as breast density, conspicuity, suspicion, etc., in addition to learning the primary task of cancer diagnosis. We show that MTL has two advantages: 1) learning refined feature representations associated with cancer improves the classification performance of the diagnosis task and 2) issuing radiological assessments provides an additional layer of model interpretability that a radiologist can use to debug and scrutinize the diagnoses provided by the CNN. The second component of MAMMO is a triage network, which takes as input the radiological assessment and diagnostic predictions of the first network's MTL outputs and determines which mammograms can be correctly and confidently diagnosed by the CNN and which mammograms cannot, thus needing to be read by a radiologist. Results obtained on a private dataset of 8,162 patients show that MAMMO reduced the number of radiologist readings by 42.8% while improving the overall diagnostic accuracy in comparison to readings done by radiologists alone. We analyze the triage of patients decided by MAMMO to gain a better understanding of what unique mammogram characteristics require radiologists' expertise.
Early detection of breast cancer has a major contribution to curability, and using mammographic images, this can be achieved non-invasively. Supervised deep learning, the dominant CADe tool currently, has played a great role in object detection in computer vision, but it suffers from a limiting property: the need of a large amount of labelled data. This becomes stricter when it comes to medical datasets which require high-cost and time-consuming annotations. Furthermore, medical datasets are usually imbalanced, a condition that often hinders classifiers performance. The aim of this paper is to learn the distribution of the minority class to synthesise new samples in order to improve lesion detection in mammography. Deep Convolutional Generative Adversarial Networks (DCGANs) can efficiently generate breast masses. They are trained on increasing-size subsets of one mammographic dataset and used to generate diverse and realistic breast masses. The effect of including the generated images and/or applying horizontal and vertical flipping is tested in an environment where a 1:10 imbalanced dataset of masses and normal tissue patches is classified by a fully-convolutional network. A maximum of ~ 0:09 improvement of F1 score is reported by using DCGANs along with flipping augmentation over using the original images. We show that DCGANs can be used for synthesising photo-realistic breast mass patches with considerable diversity. It is demonstrated that appending synthetic images in this environment, along with flipping, outperforms the traditional augmentation method of flipping solely, offering faster improvements as a function of the training set size.
Breast cancer is the most common cancer and is the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. Detection of breast cancer, while it is still small and confined to the breast, provides the best chance of effective treatment. Computer Aided Detection (CAD) systems that detect cancer from mammograms will help in reducing the human errors that lead to missing breast carcinoma. Literature is rich of scientific papers for methods of CAD design, yet with no complete system architecture to deploy those methods. On the other hand, commercial CADs are developed and deployed only to vendors' mammography machines with no availability to public access. This paper presents a complete CAD; it is complete since it combines, on a hand, the rigor of algorithm design and assessment (method), and, on the other hand, the implementation and deployment of a system architecture for public accessibility (system). (1) We develop a novel algorithm for image enhancement so that mammograms acquired from any digital mammography machine look qualitatively of the same clarity to radiologists' inspection; and is quantitatively standardized for the detection algorithms. (2) We develop novel algorithms for masses and microcalcifications detection with accuracy superior to both literature results and the majority of approved commercial systems. (3) We design, implement, and deploy a system architecture that is computationally effective to allow for deploying these algorithms to cloud for public access.
Breast cancer is the global leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women, and the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women across the world (1). From our perspective, improved treatment options and earlier detection could have a positive impact on decreasing mortality, as this could offer more options for successful intervention and therapies when the disease is still in its early stages. Our team of IBM researchers published research in Radiology around a new AI model that can predict the development of malignant breast cancer in patients within the year, at rates comparable to human radiologists. As the first algorithm of its kind to learn and make decisions from both imaging data and a comprehensive patient's health history, our model was able to correctly predict the development of breast cancer in 87 percent of the cases it analyzed, and was also able to correctly interpret 77 percent of non-cancerous cases. Our model could one day help radiologists to confirm or deny positive breast cancer cases.
Mammographic breast density, a parameter used to describe the proportion of breast tissue fibrosis, is widely adopted as an evaluation characteristic of the likelihood of breast cancer incidence. Existing methods of breast density classification either requires steps of manual operations or achieves only moderate classification accuracies due to the limited model capacity. In this study, we present a radiomics approach based on residual learning for the classification of mammographic breast densities. Different from those established approaches, our method possesses several encouraging properties including being almost fully automatic, possessing big model capacity, and having high flexibility. As a result, it can obtain outstanding classification results without the necessity of result compensation using mammographs taken from different views. The proposed method was instantiated with the INbreast dataset and classification accuracies of 92.6% and 96.8% were obtained for the four BI-RADS (Breast Imaging and Reporting Data System) category task and the two BI-RADS category task, respectively. Both values are significantly higher than the classification results of the current state-of-the-art methods, including the eight-layer convolutional neural network and the high throughput-derived multilayer visual representations. The superior performances achieved with its encouraging properties indicate that our method has a great potential to be applied as a computer-aided diagnosis tool.