Andersen, S. K., Olesen, K. G., Jensen, F. V., Jensen, F.

Causal probabilistic networks have proved to be a useful knowledge representation tool for modelling domains where causal relations in a broad sense are a natural way of relating domain objects and where uncertainty is inherited in these relations. This paper outlines an implementation the HUGIN shell--for handling a domain model expressed by a causal probabilistic network. The only topological restriction imposed on the network is that, it must not contain any directed loops. The approach is illustrated step by step by solving a. genetic breeding problem. A graph representation of the domain model is interactively created by using instances of the basic network components—nodes and arcs—as building blocks. This structure, together with the quantitative relations between nodes and their immediate causes expressed as conditional probabilities, are automatically transformed into a tree structure, a junction tree. Here a computationally efficient and conceptually simple algebra of Bayesian belief universes supports incorporation of new evidence, propagation of information, and calculation of revised beliefs in the states of the nodes in the network. Finally, as an example of a real world application, MUN1N an expert system for electromyography is discussed.IJCAI-89, Vol. 2, pp. 1080–1085

Lepar, Vasilica, Shenoy, Prakash P.

In the last decade, several architectures have been proposed for exact computation of marginals using local computation. In this paper, we compare three architectures - Lauritzen-Spiegelhalter, Hugin, and Shenoy-Shafer - from the perspective of graphical structure for message propagation, message-passing scheme, computational efficiency, and storage efficiency.

Chamberlain, Bo, Jensen, Finn Verner, Jensen, Frank, Nordahl, Torsten

After a brief introduction to causal probabilistic networks and the HUGIN approach, the problem of conflicting data is discussed. A measure of conflict is defined, and it is used in the medical diagnostic system MUNIN. Finally, it is discussed how to distinguish between conflicting data and a rare case.

Jensen, Frank, Anderson, S. K.

When expert systems based on causal probabilistic networks (CPNs) reach a certain size and complexity, the "combinatorial explosion monster" tends to be present. We propose an approximation scheme that identifies rarely occurring cases and excludes these from being processed as ordinary cases in a CPN-based expert system. Depending on the topology and the probability distributions of the CPN, the numbers (representing probabilities of state combinations) in the underlying numerical representation can become very small. Annihilating these numbers and utilizing the resulting sparseness through data structuring techniques often results in several orders of magnitude of improvement in the consumption of computer resources. Bounds on the errors introduced into a CPN-based expert system through approximations are established. Finally, reports on empirical studies of applying the approximation scheme to a real-world CPN are given.

The efficiency of inference in both the Hugin and, most notably, the Shafer-Shenoy architectures can be improved by exploiting the independence relations induced by the incoming messages of a clique. That is, the message to be sent from a clique can be computed via a factorization of the clique potential in the form of a junction tree. In this paper we show that by exploiting such nested junction trees in the computation of messages both space and time costs of the conventional propagation methods may be reduced. The paper presents a structured way of exploiting the nested junction trees technique to achieve such reductions. The usefulness of the method is emphasized through a thorough empirical evaluation involving ten large real-world Bayesian networks and the Hugin inference algorithm.