Graph Neural Networks (GNNs), which generalize deep neural networks to graph-structured data, have drawn considerable attention and achieved state-of-the-art performance in numerous graph related tasks. However, existing GNN models mainly focus on designing graph convolution operations. The graph pooling (or downsampling) operations, that play an important role in learning hierarchical representations, are usually overlooked. In this paper, we propose a novel graph pooling operator, called Hierarchical Graph Pooling with Structure Learning (HGP-SL), which can be integrated into various graph neural network architectures. HGP-SL incorporates graph pooling and structure learning into a unified module to generate hierarchical representations of graphs. More specifically, the graph pooling operation adaptively selects a subset of nodes to form an induced subgraph for the subsequent layers. To preserve the integrity of graph's topological information, we further introduce a structure learning mechanism to learn a refined graph structure for the pooled graph at each layer. By combining HGP-SL operator with graph neural networks, we perform graph level representation learning with focus on graph classification task. Experimental results on six widely used benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed model.
Advanced methods of applying deep learning to structured data such as graphs have been proposed in recent years. In particular, studies have focused on generalizing convolutional neural networks to graph data, which includes redefining the convolution and the downsampling (pooling) operations for graphs. The method of generalizing the convolution operation to graphs has been proven to improve performance and is widely used. However, the method of applying downsampling to graphs is still difficult to perform and has room for improvement. In this paper, we propose a graph pooling method based on self-attention. Self-attention using graph convolution allows our pooling method to consider both node features and graph topology. To ensure a fair comparison, the same training procedures and model architectures were used for the existing pooling methods and our method. The experimental results demonstrate that our method achieves superior graph classification performance on the benchmark datasets using a reasonable number of parameters.
Graph Neural Network (GNN) research has concentrated on improving convolutional layers, with little attention paid to developing graph pooling layers. Yet pooling layers can enable GNNs to reason over abstracted groups of nodes instead of single nodes. To close this gap, we propose a graph pooling layer relying on the notion of edge contraction: EdgePool learns a localized and sparse hard pooling transform. We show that EdgePool outperforms alternative pooling methods, can be easily integrated into most GNN models, and improves performance on both node and graph classification.
Recent years have witnessed the emergence and flourishing of hierarchical graph pooling neural networks (HGPNNs) which are effective graph representation learning approaches for graph level tasks such as graph classification. However, current HGPNNs do not take full advantage of the graph's intrinsic structures (e.g., community structure). Moreover, the pooling operations in existing HGPNNs are difficult to be interpreted. In this paper, we propose a new interpretable graph pooling framework - CommPOOL, that can capture and preserve the hierarchical community structure of graphs in the graph representation learning process. Specifically, the proposed community pooling mechanism in CommPOOL utilizes an unsupervised approach for capturing the inherent community structure of graphs in an interpretable manner. CommPOOL is a general and flexible framework for hierarchical graph representation learning that can further facilitate various graph-level tasks. Evaluations on five public benchmark datasets and one synthetic dataset demonstrate the superior performance of CommPOOL in graph representation learning for graph classification compared to the state-of-the-art baseline methods, and its effectiveness in capturing and preserving the community structure of graphs.
Recently, graph neural networks (GNNs) have revolutionized the field of graph representation learning through effectively learned node embeddings, and achieved state-of-the-art results in tasks such as node classification and link prediction. However, current GNN methods are inherently flat and do not learn hierarchical representations of graphs---a limitation that is especially problematic for the task of graph classification, where the goal is to predict the label associated with an entire graph. Here we propose DiffPool, a differentiable graph pooling module that can generate hierarchical representations of graphs and can be combined with various graph neural network architectures in an end-to-end fashion. DiffPool learns a differentiable soft cluster assignment for nodes at each layer of a deep GNN, mapping nodes to a set of clusters, which then form the coarsened input for the next GNN layer. Our experimental results show that combining existing GNN methods with DiffPool yields an average improvement of 5-10% accuracy on graph classification benchmarks, compared to all existing pooling approaches, achieving a new state-of-the-art on four out of five benchmark datasets.