Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) is a current focal point of research. The body of knowledge is fragmented, leading to a trial-error method while selecting an appropriate GAN for a given scenario. We provide a comprehensive summary of the evolution of GANs starting from its inception addressing issues like mode collapse, vanishing gradient, unstable training and non-convergence. We also provide a comparison of various GANs from the application point of view, its behaviour and implementation details. We propose a novel framework to identify candidate GANs for a specific use case based on architecture, loss, regularization and divergence. We also discuss application of the framework using an example, and we demonstrate a significant reduction in search space. This efficient way to determine potential GANs lowers unit economics of AI development for organizations.
Generative adversarial networks (GANs) have been shown to produce realistic samples from high-dimensional distributions, but training them is considered hard. A possible explanation for training instabilities is the inherent imbalance between the networks: While the discriminator is trained directly on both real and fake samples, the generator only has control over the fake samples it produces since the real data distribution is fixed by the choice of a given dataset. We propose a simple modification that gives the generator control over the real samples which leads to a tempered learning process for both generator and discriminator. The real data distribution passes through a lens before being revealed to the discriminator, balancing the generator and discriminator by gradually revealing more detailed features necessary to produce high-quality results. The proposed module automatically adjusts the learning process to the current strength of the networks, yet is generic and easy to add to any GAN variant. In a number of experiments, we show that this can improve quality, stability and/or convergence speed across a range of different GAN architectures (DCGAN, LSGAN, WGAN-GP).
Auto-encoding generative adversarial networks (GANs) combine the standard GAN algorithm, which discriminates between real and model-generated data, with a reconstruction loss given by an auto-encoder. Such models aim to prevent mode collapse in the learned generative model by ensuring that it is grounded in all the available training data. In this paper, we develop a principle upon which auto-encoders can be combined with generative adversarial networks by exploiting the hierarchical structure of the generative model. The underlying principle shows that variational inference can be used a basic tool for learning, but with the in- tractable likelihood replaced by a synthetic likelihood, and the unknown posterior distribution replaced by an implicit distribution; both synthetic likelihoods and implicit posterior distributions can be learned using discriminators. This allows us to develop a natural fusion of variational auto-encoders and generative adversarial networks, combining the best of both these methods. We describe a unified objective for optimization, discuss the constraints needed to guide learning, connect to the wide range of existing work, and use a battery of tests to systematically and quantitatively assess the performance of our method.
Generative adversarial networks (GANs) are a family of generative models that do not minimize a single training criterion. Unlike other generative models, the data distribution is learned via a game between a generator (the generative model) and a discriminator (a teacher providing training signal) that each minimize their own cost. GANs are designed to reach a Nash equilibrium at which each player cannot reduce their cost without changing the other players' parameters. One useful approach for the theory of GANs is to show that a divergence between the training distribution and the model distribution obtains its minimum value at equilibrium. Several recent research directions have been motivated by the idea that this divergence is the primary guide for the learning process and that every step of learning should decrease the divergence. We show that this view is overly restrictive. During GAN training, the discriminator provides learning signal in situations where the gradients of the divergences between distributions would not be useful. We provide empirical counterexamples to the view of GAN training as divergence minimization. Specifically, we demonstrate that GANs are able to learn distributions in situations where the divergence minimization point of view predicts they would fail. We also show that gradient penalties motivated from the divergence minimization perspective are equally helpful when applied in other contexts in which the divergence minimization perspective does not predict they would be helpful. This contributes to a growing body of evidence that GAN training may be more usefully viewed as approaching Nash equilibria via trajectories that do not necessarily minimize a specific divergence at each step.
We propose studying GAN training dynamics as regret minimization, which is in contrast to the popular view that there is consistent minimization of a divergence between real and generated distributions. We analyze the convergence of GAN training from this new point of view to understand why mode collapse happens. We hypothesize the existence of undesirable local equilibria in this non-convex game to be responsible for mode collapse. We observe that these local equilibria often exhibit sharp gradients of the discriminator function around some real data points. We demonstrate that these degenerate local equilibria can be avoided with a gradient penalty scheme called DRAGAN. We show that DRAGAN enables faster training, achieves improved stability with fewer mode collapses, and leads to generator networks with better modeling performance across a variety of architectures and objective functions.