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Horseshoe Regularization for Machine Learning in Complex and Deep Models

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Since the advent of the horseshoe priors for regularization, global-local shrinkage methods have proved to be a fertile ground for the development of Bayesian methodology in machine learning, specifically for high-dimensional regression and classification problems. They have achieved remarkable success in computation, and enjoy strong theoretical support. Most of the existing literature has focused on the linear Gaussian case; see Bhadra et al. (2019) for a systematic survey. The purpose of the current article is to demonstrate that the horseshoe regularization is useful far more broadly, by reviewing both methodological and computational developments in complex models that are more relevant to machine learning applications. Specifically, we focus on methodological challenges in horseshoe regularization in nonlinear and non-Gaussian models; multivariate models; and deep neural networks. We also outline the recent computational developments in horseshoe shrinkage for complex models along with a list of available software implementations that allows one to venture out beyond the comfort zone of the canonical linear regression problems.


Brain covariance selection: better individual functional connectivity models using population prior

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Spontaneous brain activity, as observed in functional neuroimaging, has been shown to display reproducible structure that expresses brain architecture and carries markers of brain pathologies. An important view of modern neuroscience is that such large-scale structure of coherent activity reflects modularity properties of brain connectivity graphs. However, to date, there has been no demonstration that the limited and noisy data available in spontaneous activity observations could be used to learn full-brain probabilistic models that generalize to new data. Learning such models entails two main challenges: i) modeling full brain connectivity is a difficult estimation problem that faces the curse of dimensionality and ii) variability between subjects, coupled with the variability of functional signals between experimental runs, makes the use of multiple datasets challenging. We describe subject-level brain functional connectivity structure as a multivariate Gaussian process and introduce a new strategy to estimate it from group data, by imposing a common structure on the graphical model in the population. We show that individual models learned from functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data using this population prior generalize better to unseen data than models based on alternative regularization schemes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a cross-validated model of spontaneous brain activity. Finally, we use the estimated graphical model to explore the large-scale characteristics of functional architecture and show for the first time that known cognitive networks appear as the integrated communities of functional connectivity graph.


An Expectation Conditional Maximization approach for Gaussian graphical models

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Bayesian graphical models are a useful tool for understanding dependence relationships among many variables, particularly in situations with external prior information. In high-dimensional settings, the space of possible graphs becomes enormous, rendering even state-of-the-art Bayesian stochastic search computationally infeasible. We propose a deterministic alternative to estimate Gaussian and Gaussian copula graphical models using an Expectation Conditional Maximization (ECM) algorithm, extending the EM approach from Bayesian variable selection to graphical model estimation. We show that the ECM approach enables fast posterior exploration under a sequence of mixture priors, and can incorporate multiple sources of information.


Brain covariance selection: better individual functional connectivity models using population prior

Neural Information Processing Systems

Spontaneous brain activity, as observed in functional neuroimaging, has been shown to display reproducible structure that expresses brain architecture and carries markers of brain pathologies. An important view of modern neuroscience is that such large-scale structure of coherent activity reflects modularity properties of brain connectivity graphs. However, to date, there has been no demonstration that the limited and noisy data available in spontaneous activity observations could be used to learn full-brain probabilistic models that generalize to new data. Learning such models entails two main challenges: i) modeling full brain connectivity is a difficult estimation problem that faces the curse of dimensionality and ii) variability between subjects, coupled with the variability of functional signals between experimental runs, makes the use of multiple datasets challenging. We describe subject-level brain functional connectivity structure as a multivariate Gaussian process and introduce a new strategy to estimate it from group data, by imposing a common structure on the graphical model in the population. We show that individual models learned from functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data using this population prior generalize better to unseen data than models based on alternative regularization schemes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a cross-validated model of spontaneous brain activity. Finally, we use the estimated graphical model to explore the large-scale characteristics of functional architecture and show for the first time that known cognitive networks appear as the integrated communities of functional connectivity graph.


Integrating Additional Knowledge Into Estimation of Graphical Models

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In applications of graphical models, we typically have more information than just the samples themselves. A prime example is the estimation of brain connectivity networks based on fMRI data, where in addition to the samples themselves, the spatial positions of the measurements are readily available. With particular regard for this application, we are thus interested in ways to incorporate additional knowledge most effectively into graph estimation. Our approach to this is to make neighborhood selection receptive to additional knowledge by strengthening the role of the tuning parameters. We demonstrate that this concept (i) can improve reproducibility, (ii) is computationally convenient and efficient, and (iii) carries a lucid Bayesian interpretation. We specifically show that the approach provides effective estimations of brain connectivity graphs from fMRI data. However, providing a general scheme for the inclusion of additional knowledge, our concept is expected to have applications in a wide range of domains.