In many practical tasks it is needed to estimate an effect of treatment on individual level. For example, in medicine it is essential to determine the patients that would benefit from a certain medicament. In marketing, knowing the persons that are likely to buy a new product would reduce the amount of spam. In this chapter, we review the methods to estimate an individual treatment effect from a randomized trial, i.e., an experiment when a part of individuals receives a new treatment, while the others do not. Finally, it is shown that new efficient methods are needed in this domain.
Ya know, the Russian government's pulled a lot of shit on the United States lately, but I did not expect them to reveal that Russian President Vladimir Putin orchestrated the drafting of Russian star Alexander Ovechkin to the Washington Capitals back in 2004 all so Putin could tap the hockey man to lead a pro-Putin propaganda effort from inside the U.S. capital. Can you prove that's not what happened? The real news is this: Ovechkin really is a Russian star for the Washington Capitals. As you can tell from the photo above, he really does occasionally pal around with Putin. And by posting to Instagram on Thursday, he really did seem to launch some sort of pro-Putin social media movement ahead of the Russian presidential "election" coming up in March.
Images emerged from Russian President Vladimir Putin's vacation in the remote Tuva region in southern Siberia that all showed the leader shirtless as he enjoyed the summer sun. The images have since spurred what's being referred to as the #PutinShirtlessChallenge. Several Russians chose to honor the presidential figure by sharing their own shirtless pictures to social media. According to The Guardian, Pavel Durov -- who founded social media websites like Telegram -- was the first person to initiate the trend on Instagram. "My Instagram had to seriously step up the game to keep up with the increased competition from Mr. Putin's shirtless photos," Durov wrote Monday.