In many practical tasks it is needed to estimate an effect of treatment on individual level. For example, in medicine it is essential to determine the patients that would benefit from a certain medicament. In marketing, knowing the persons that are likely to buy a new product would reduce the amount of spam. In this chapter, we review the methods to estimate an individual treatment effect from a randomized trial, i.e., an experiment when a part of individuals receives a new treatment, while the others do not. Finally, it is shown that new efficient methods are needed in this domain.
Ya know, the Russian government's pulled a lot of shit on the United States lately, but I did not expect them to reveal that Russian President Vladimir Putin orchestrated the drafting of Russian star Alexander Ovechkin to the Washington Capitals back in 2004 all so Putin could tap the hockey man to lead a pro-Putin propaganda effort from inside the U.S. capital. Can you prove that's not what happened? The real news is this: Ovechkin really is a Russian star for the Washington Capitals. As you can tell from the photo above, he really does occasionally pal around with Putin. And by posting to Instagram on Thursday, he really did seem to launch some sort of pro-Putin social media movement ahead of the Russian presidential "election" coming up in March.
In times of austerity governments are under pressure to tighten the purse strings and the Saratov regional assembly in western Russia is no exception. One local politician, Communist Party Deputy Nikolay Bondarenko, who uses social media to document his work, has taken on a challenge to live on 3,500 rubles (£40, or US$52) a month. This is the amount the Saratov government suggests the average citizen would spend on food and drink, thus justifying the slight increase in the local pension of 288 rubles a month. His confrontation about the increase with Natalya Sokolova, regional minister for social policy, has been viewed more than 850,000 times on YouTube. He asked her to try feeding herself on such a budget, but she declined, offering to compile him a balanced menu and to recommend shops to buy discounted items.